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6 Essential Skills to Write an Economics Paper with Ease

procurement management jobsDo you really think that writing an economics paper is a piece of cake? As long as this is one of the most difficult subjects to study, writing it is even worse. Yet still, there are undergraduates, who manage, and do it pretty well. Are you one of them? Well, it is pretty hard to answer at once. Experts agree to the idea that you are to have some special skills to become a successful writer when it comes to economics.

Analytical Thinking Is Your # 1 Skill

Is it? Really? Then you will definitely succeed in writing. Much data must be analyzed during the processes of research and writing. No wonder, most researchers give up and choose different subjects as their majors or switch to easier topics. If analytical thinking is one of your strongest skills, be sure that your economics paper will be one of the best. If only not the best!

Critical Thinking Skills Are a Must

They go hand in hand with analytical thinking ones. The one, who deals with this sort of a paper, is not a usual writer but an economist. He/she uses logic along with reasoning and manages to cope with the most complex problems.

Information Collecting Skills

They say that an economist is as good as his/her findings. The findings always depend on the accuracy of all the gathered data. We believe that this skill is easy to develop and improve. How? The more you research and write, the better author you become. With time a writer learns a few tricks and knows how to find the needed data.

Attention to Details

It is easy to omit a detail that is significant and will eventually ruin your analysis and conclusion. To write a very good economics paper with ease, one should pay close attention to most details, figuring out which of them are essential and which aren’t.

Minimalism Is the Key

How so? Working on an economics paper is not the same as working on an essay. You need to be concrete and precise, make complex things simple, and turn tricky theories into comprehensible sentences. In one word: you are to be a minimalist.

Problem Solving Skills

There is a whole set of them. To cut a long story short, a writer is to manage to identify the problems that are complex, evaluate them, and then find the necessary solution. Even if you are a true minimalist and attentive to details, this may be useless if solving problems is not your strong point.

Economics is diverse. And that’s the reality. If this is the path you have chosen, you need to figure out which skills you already have and which you need to develop. A mysterious sphere may become your new home if you are not lazy and find more time to develop as a writer and grow as a professional economist. Becoming an economist will take time. But you have enough of it, don’t you?

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The New Era of Health Insurance with TrumpCare

medicineWith the election of Donald Trump many things have changed. The entire paradigm of the USA is going to be reviewed and altered in many ways. Such changes concern foreign policies, domestic affairs, social policies and of course health care system. During his rule ex-president Barack Obama introduced a health care system now known as ObamaCare. It is a set of laws concerning all health care issues. But now with the election of Donald Trump new changes are coming. In first weeks of his being elected Trump and his team stated that they are going to repeal and replace existing ObamaCare. It was the inception of what is now called TrumpCare. It is worth mentioning that TrumpCare is not yet a legitimate act, it is just a set of laws to be passed in order to change ObamaCare.

American society is now divided into two major groups: those who support TrumpCare and those who are sceptic about it, of course. Before judging that new system it would be better to understand the basis of it, to render the ideas it proposes and how it is going to influence citizens of the United States. There are some key points about TrumpCare.

It repeals the individual mandate (the tax penalty for not having Health Insurance Coverage). Under Obamacare, the individual mandate requires all eligible citizens to have health insurance, which makes coverage affordable nationwide, while the individual mandate will be eliminated under TrumpCare, thus giving people a chance to decide if they want to have insurance or not.

Provides coverage for those with pre-existing conditions. As Trump had mentioned, he likes requirements of the ACA, but coverage may become more expensive under this plan.

Allows children to stay on Parents Plan until they are 26. The idea is pretty clear, some people consider it to be a con, though.

Medicaid expansion is not impacted until 2020. For now it is the major point in the plan. Trump had mentioned that they are going to freeze Medicaid expansion, but the period of execution is significantly delayed.

Replaces subsidies with refundable Tax Credits. It was also mentioned that people may be able to deduct the entire cost of health insurance premiums from their federal tax.

Removes the 3.8% Tax on individuals earning more than $250,000 a year. Actually, it is more than removing that tax but removing the compulsory tax for employers to take care of their full-time employees. This one is a very controversial as it seems to be a “win” for higher-income Americans and businesses.

Places more focus on encouraging people to open Health Savings Accounts. This point seems to be quite smart, though saving account would already exist. It is hard to state whether it is good or not as people with those saving accounts are to spend thousands each year.

All in all, there are still many ideas stated by President Trump and his team. It is impossible to cover all of them, as they are still in draft and their development is an ongoing process, the result of which will be seen much later, probably after 2020 after the total freezing of Medicaid. By now we can only judge from our own perspectives and perception.

References:

  1. Greve, Bent. “Introduction – Obamacare – Implication For Social Policy And Administration In The United States”. Social Policy & Administration 50.4 (2016): 425-427. Web.
  2. Leimbigler, Betsy and Christian Lammert. “Why Health Care Reform Now? Strategic Framing And The Passage Of Obamacare”. Social Policy & Administration 50.4 (2016): 467-481. Web.
  3. Lyon, Jeff. “Fixing Obamacare Takes Back Seat, Poll Finds”. JAMA 316.22 (2016): 2348. Web.
  4. “Debating Obamacare”. Chemistry & Industry 76.9 (2012): 23-23. Web.
  5. Kamerow, Douglas. “What Now For Obamacare?”. BMJ (2016): i6063. Web.
  6. Yelowitz, Aaron. “Obamacare: A Bad Deal For Young Adults”. SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
  7. Kamerow, Douglas. “There’S More To Obamacare Than Health Insurance”. BMJ (2017): j338. Web.
  8. Bringedal, Berit. “Obamacare”. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 136.18 (2016): 1571-1571. Web.
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8 Reasons Why You Should Study Economics

designer at workEconomics is a live subject with tangible every day impact. Newspapers, magazines news agencies write tons of articles about current, past and potential future economic situation. Economics seems to have conquered thoughts of the modern world. Why study economics? Despite the fact that there are not many top notch professionals in economics, people still have great interest in the subject. And it is no surprise. Even basic understanding of how things work in economy gives us great advantages. And here are eight reasons why you should study economics.

  1. First of all, it is the importance of the subject. It is everywhere. In grocery stores, in drug stores, in cinemas, petrol stations. It is literally everywhere. Each time you spend or get money you become involved into a fascinating process of the economy. All countries are built and work upon it. Even that single fact is valid enough to start studying it at a university.
  2. Combined courses. When people enter universities they usually take one certain course to get the hang of it, while economics gives you vast range of options. You can combine your studying with almost any other subjects such as linguistics, law or any other topic you are interested in. For instance you have combined it with linguistics. Three years of studying for bachelor’s degree give you an opportunity to master at least one foreign language quite well. After all you can even become a specialized translator, if you job demands it. Knowing several languages opens you many additional opportunities as working for international of foreign companies, which otherwise would be impossible. Combining economics with law studying is quite popular as well. The bare fact of being proficient in two major everyday life spheres makes you quite a desirable worker.
  3. One of the most important things that attract young people to start their economics studying is that graduates have one of the highest rates of finding a job within six months after graduation.
  4. Independence. It is common knowledge that economics students devote great amount of time to independent study. Having experience in self-studying really prepares one for real life, where you are to take responsibility.
  5. It is lucrative. Being an economic forecaster or any other related specialist you may profit a lot. Economics graduates are among the top lucrative professions with about £42,000 earned in ten years after graduation.
  6. Flexibility. Economics has a very broad application base. Graduates can easily find jobs in civil services, industries or education. It becomes even more flexible when you take additional courses.
  7. Personal understanding. It was already mentioned above that economics surrounds us, in every aspect of our lives. So it seems to be of significant importance to see, but even more to understand how it works. The purpose behind taxes, how monetary exchanges work etc.
  8. It’s a good start. It provides the opportunity not to get a job, but to build a real career instead. Economics graduates are usually educated people who have gone through development of their analytical and critical thinking skills. It makes you an investigator and researcher. You can use your knowledge in different spheres. You can be an advisor, a forecaster etc.

So, why study economics? There you have it. That list can go on and on. The opportunities of studying economics are pretty obvious. The more you know the more wanted you are, especially if it comes to such vital knowledge.

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International Economics Book Review Sample: The Shackled Continent: Power, Corruption, and African Lives

limuru

When the question is about the missionary on the dark continent, the very first thing you imagine are brave explorers carrying the Holy Bible and telling the tribesmen about Jesus. Not a bad option at all, but Robert Guest has something else to tell. With good old Economist, he’s ready to tell that every member of the benighted tribe community can be saved simply through entering the area of the free-market global capitalism. The latter is described by Guest as the tool that will bring the prosperity era to the continent and help to everyone to get rid of any local superstition.

It is necessary to point out that Guest appears to be excellently equipped for his mission. His breezy and plain style enables him to describe all the miseries and dreadful facts about Africans such as bitter massacres, poverty and even brigands at the local road-blocks. Besides, he’s known as the Economist’s African correspondent and editor, who truly believes the hard times that the continent is getting through are caused by the failure to build capitalism.

When staying on a small farm in Malawi, where Mr. Zimba had managed to build a small mud snack using a range of plastic bags as window frames, the author of the book came to a certain conclusion – there is no better and solid proof that the world’s poor are in need of what is called capitalism!

Using some good humor and compassion, Guest shows that nothing really works in the majority of the regions all over the dark continent: if the readers do not get the message, the author emphasizes it with lopsided letters in the headlines and the title. He portrays the people in Africa shackled by cruel governments, authority officials and rulers, who press so hard to destroy individual enterprise.

Despite all hope seems to be gone, Robert Guest remains positive. In the long run, the man is sure the country will eventually prosper. Every country can switch from being poor to wealth and comfort. And the best examples of such a transition can be seen in Japan and Italy.

In his book, Guest never views capitalism as something that only huge corporations are involved in. Instead, he insists that informal economy in Africa is crucial and supports the theories provided by Hernando de Soto. A famous economist from Peru say the dwellers in small and forgotten-by-God towns need to acquire property rights in order to get into the swing of things in the capitalistic world.

In the majority of dark continent countries, where greedy authorities enforce state controls, the importance of an individual free enterprise seems to be obvious, while the arguments of the author are pretty persuasive. However, when talking about the South Africa, Robert Guest doesn’t seem to be that convincing. Moreover, he doesn’t consider the past record of the Economist’s “cold-blooded world capitalism”, as well as anti-communist movement that led the team of the magazine to do battle with the sanctions and defend apartheid governments – that proved the key tool of the so-called peaceful revolution.

Instead, the author crudely explains the details of the transition: the USSR collapse encouraged the ANC (known nowadays as the most grandiose black liberation movement) to renounce the era of Marxism. That is why white citizens in the South African came to understanding that black rule did not include confiscation of their houses and other property. For that reason, they provided blacks with the right to vote via referendum.

Exactly that interpretation made capitalism unnecessarily cold-blooded for the globe. For it was the range of the USA banks, and all the sanctions imposed by the representatives of the Congress that started undermining apartheid long before the USSR fall. And exactly because of the western media support provided for the ANC they got persuaded they had more supporters in the west rather than in the east, and that it was a good idea to reconcile with the world capitalists.

Guest tells it’s important to apply the same explanations to the South Africa even today. The government’s efforts to protect and support workers have already led to the joblessness rise, Guest says. According to his words, corrective discrimination will never improve the life of human beings. How about the Afrikaner governments in the region that required English-speaking companies and banks to discriminate in their favor in order to let the middle class prosper?

It’s more than silly to believe the region can be saved through the application of a range of cruel free-market policies without taking into account the actual political costs. This can only stimulate new anti-capitalism movement. You, as a reader, have an opportunity to learn a lot from these pages; however, make sure to keep the political analysis in mind as well!

References:

  • Mundell, “The Theory of Optimum Currency Areas,” American Economic Review, September 1961, pp. 657–65, and R. McKinnon, “Optimum Currency Areas,” American Economic Review, September 1993, pp. 717–25.
  • Draper G    Writing  book  reviews.  Online  article.  Accessed  from http://library.uwaterloo.ca/libguides/1-12.html, 2007-12-08.
  • Stilwell F, 2010, ‘Environmental Policy: Beyond the Market’, Contesting Markets symposium, The University of Sydney, Sydney, September 30 – October 1.
  • Book review of: Economics as Religion From Samuelson to Chicago and Beyond By Robert H. Nelson Penn State Univ. 378p.
  • Brown, Ellen. “Time for a New Theory of Money.” org, October 29, 2010.
  • Lee, C.J., Hsien-chan Ho, Shing-Mei Chen, Ya-huei Yang, Soon-joy Chang, and
  • Hui-lin Wu. The Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Republic of China. Ta i p e i , Ta i w a n : Chung-Hua Institute of Economic Research, 1995.
  • Colander, David. 2005. From muddling through to the economics of control: view of applied policy from J. N. Keynes to Abba Lerner. History of Political Economy, 37 (Supplement 1): 277-291.
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Conservation Essay: Hunting Down the Endangered Species to Save Them

afrika safariThe illegal hunting and killing of rhinos and lions in South Africa and Zimbabwe have ignited a heated debate over the so-called trophy hunting, as well as the role it plays in conservation.

A range of claims have been made recently regarding the benefits that the trophy hunting brings to the economic segment of Africa. That’s where hunting is a big game that turns to be big business. The latter is reported to be estimated near $200 000 000 yearly.

The economic significance of the issue polarises the debates. On one hand, animal rights activists tend to protect the wildlife conservation, while the hunters claim that ‘sustainable’ use of wildlife is a must for the modern conservation strategies. Let’s take a look at some sources and studies to investigate the matter.

A lot of recent articles have informed on the revenues that come from the trophy hunting – over $200 000 000 on the black continent. According to the article ‘Biological Conservation’ published in 2006, there are many countries, where hunting industries are significantly developed. Among them Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and others.

In terms of animals shot and visiting hunters, South Africa had the most grandiose hunting industry. The most significant was the trophy hunting in Botswana, followed by Namibia and Tanzania. So, the question is how much is South Africa actually earning from the trophy hunting? According to the estimation performed by the Department of Environmental Affairs of South Africa in 2012, trophy hunting generated near 807 million and 1 billion in 2013. The information obtained is based on the ‘species fees’ that come from the hunters to the landowners and farmers, as well as regular rates that are usually charged by the hunting outfitters in order to cover all accommodation and food costs.

The 1 billion that was gained in 2013 included the species fees of near 757 million, as well as 314 millions of daily rates, with 44 000 animals killed to get trophies in that particular year. It is important to mention that the figures provided above do not include indirect income gained from trophy shipping fees, taxidermy, tourism activities and companions that are not related to hunting. Neither does it include data regarding the hunting permits for particular species that are not mentioned in the “protected-and-threatened list” as these fees usually differ from one province to the other and are charged only at provincial level.

How does trophy hunting compare to the regular tourism? According to the recent reports, in 2013 tourism had contributed 323 billion to the GDP of South Africa. More than 8 500 trophy hunters come to SA annually, compared to almost 9,5 million tourists. In sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 18 500 hunters participate in related activities every year, according to the reports, generating near $201 million in contrast to the estimate provided by the World Bank – 33.8 million visitors in 2012 (with 36 billion earnings in US dollars.)

The local economists say that while the number of hunters, as well as the contribution they make to the GDP, is not huge, trophy hunters are spending more and more exceeding the average tourists.

In 2014, the investigators of the economic impact of hunting in Free State, Limpopo and Northern Cape provinces of South Africa found 4 558, 17 806 and 9 072 jobs (accordingly) depend on the hunting area, as well as the ones of individuals employed permanently on the game farms.

In the same way, the ex-chief executive of WWF SA John Hanks argues that in the areas with high wildlife density and beautiful landscapes, the potential for the photo tourism is greater than the one for the trophy hunting.

References:

  • LINDSEY,P.A.; ROULET,P.A. & ROMAÑACH,S.S. (2007): Economic and conservation significance of the trophy hunting industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Biological Conservation 134:455-469.
  • Booth, V. 2002. Analysis of wildlife markets. Report. World Wildlife Fund, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Whitman, K., A. Starfield, H. Quadling, and C. Packer. 2004. Sustainable trophy-hunting of African lions. Nature 428: 175–178.
  • Mbaiwa, Joseph E. 2004. “The Socio‐Economic  Benefits  and  Challenges  of  a  Community‐Based Safari  Hunting  Tourism  in  the  Okavango  Delta,  ” The Journal of Tourism Studies 15 (2): 37–50.
  • BAKER,J.E. (1997): Trophy hunting as a sustainable use of wild life resources in southern and eastern Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5: 306-321.
  • Barnett, Rob, and Claire 2006. Sport Hunting in the Southern  African Development Community (SADC) Region: An Overview.
  • Ian Michler, ‘Botswana’s Great Lion Debate’, Africa Geographic, 01 January 2001 & Martin Hutter, ‘Utilization of Wild Living Animals, Conservation and Sustainable Development: Contradiction in Terms or a Promising Approach?’, Pro Wildlife, 2002.
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Summer Student Part Time Jobs No Longer a Thing?

ashton and michael kutcherPart time jobs during summer breaks seem to be less popular in contrast to the past, when students did their best to find a good place to earn some bucks on holidays. According to the recent researches, the number of 17-year olds getting a job during summer breaks has halved in the last two decades.

Hard to Get a Foot in the Door

The experts of the IPPR (the Institute for Public Policy Research) inform that while the university fees rising could make young people concentrate on their academic progress, the majority of employers require staff with previous professional experience for the part-time positions, thus, depriving students of a range of options easily accessible 20 years ago. The IPPR specialists called on the universities, schools and governments to help youngsters in acquiring professional experience that would cultivate the skills required by the employers.

Contrasts from the Past

The research conducted on the 17-year-olds engaged in both full-time studying and part-time job has halved in contrast to 20 years ago. At the same time, the number of 18-24-year-olds has dropped by almost a fifth. Twenty years ago, over 40% of 17-year-olds had a summer part-time job. Experts say it was crucial to have a summer part-time job in order to get to know the world of grown-ups and employment better. The research proved that without work experience, it’s not easy to show off the soft skills recruiters are on the lookout for. However, right after the recession that happened in 2009, up to 23% of youngsters with no prior experience were unemployed, in contrast to 14% with professional experience. The researchers also insist that education and work can be highly useful for students, who wish to boost skills needed for their future career, as well as to smoothly switch from college to work. But the reality is – the opportunities available nowadays are not enough.

Lack of Flexible Part-Time Job Opportunities

As said by the IPPR spokesman, not every college or university student would like to work – a lot of them give preference to some other activities. Moreover, with increased college fees and exam pressures, the majority of students might better try to work on their academic progress. But what the research doesn’t show is that a lot of college students have no job during the academic year or in summer – meaning they are unemployed and that they’ve informed they would like to have a part time job. The IPPR spokesman said that during summer 2015 up to 250 000 16-24-year-old had no job, which meant they had a strong desire to get employed but couldn’t. To add more, he also proved the kind of jobs college students used to get engaged in – such as retail, part-time work or sales – are nowadays highly limited.

So, is it really the end of the part-time jobs era? The surveys prove that even in case skilled and full-time jobs are accessible, they are quite hard for youngsters willing to combine work with full-time education. The problem is that the majority of the recruiters prefer to employ individuals with previous experience, while only 27% of employers choose those, who have just graduated. The reality is that it’s part-time job that help teens to develop professional skills rather than exotic trip. You’ve been to Zimbabwe for hell knows what reason (to save the world of whatever), but what’s the point if you have got no real experience?

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Uber Essay Sample

uberUber is used to connect riders with the drivers in what is related to the transportation. This in turn generates significant economic activity, as well as provides a range of economic opportunities. A great example of the total Uber’s impact can be seen in the City of Chicago. According to the most recent investigations of the issue, the total impact of the operations of Uber in the city was more than $46 million.

    As revealed by the study performed by ECONorthwest, the Uber’s technology platform has brought the following economic contributions:

  • The total gross impact on the economy of the city was up to $46 380 000 and as the time is passing by the impact is expected to be even larger. The economic impact is going to scale proportionately to the revenue growth of Uber.
  • In 2013, both the efficiency and the convenience of Uber’s tech provided 25 000 extra rides in Chicago that is more than the transportation market would ever do without Uber’s options.
  • Uber has also brought near 1 049 new jobs in the City of Chicago in 2013. But the thing is that Uber never hires drivers. The figure mentioned above includes the new direct jobs provided for the transportation providers and indirect jobs from transportation-related fields.

According to the experts, Uber has brightened financial future for many citizens and become the only source of support for many families.

In order to estimate Uber’s economic impact on the country’s macroeconomic level, the experts highlighted eleven cities with perfectly established Uber operations. The latter include providing three vehicle classes such as: UberX, UberBLACK and UberSUV. The overall economic impact of Uber is an actual sum total of every economic activity within the region that is linked to the business of Uber. This includes payments received from the Uber-Uber’s partners riders, all activities formed when partners begin to spend funds to provide rides, as well as all extra spending that partners tend to take on as a result of their income as drivers.

The additional value provided by Uber actually flows through every driver as well as supports additional economic activities even beyond the given ride. And finally, consumers also have a great opportunity to benefit from Uber economic rewards – by virtue of the fact they prefer to spend funds on the rides with Uber instead of the other alternative money use. That’s how the so-called ‘consumer surplus’ is being created.

The experts have estimated all incremental rides in a range of steps. With the help of the conservative estimates used for unknown parameters, the specialists have first revealed the implied perceived cost of each of Uber ride. It is important to mention that the calculation was performed on the basis of the estimated time cost of Uber, cross-price elasticity of the taxis demand and the observed market share of Uber rides. At the end of the process, the perceived cost was used in combination with the range of literature-based estimates of the demand price elasticity within the taxi field. The results have proven the expansion of the incremental supply of rides within the city.

References:

  1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Alcohol-Impaired Driving, Dec. 2013, at http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811870.pdf.
  2. Alliance Against Intoxicated Motorists, 2012 DUI Facts, at http://www.aaim1.org/resource_facts.asp.
  3. Dr. Robert Bruno, Driven Into Poverty, University of Illinois’ School of Labor and Employment Relations, at http://www.ler.illinois.edu/labor/ images/Taxi_Income_Report_-_Final_Copy.pdf.
  4. Emily Badger, Taxi medallions have been the best investment in America for years. Now Uber may be changing that, The Washington Post, Nov. 27, 2014, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/11/27/as-uber-fights-new-battles-over-privacy-an-older-war-simmers-with-thecab-industry/.
  5. I-Team: Cab Riders’ Gripes, Drivers Exposed, WLS-TV, May 13, 2014, at http://abc7chicago.com/archive/9535692/.
  6. Jason Meisner, Cynthia Dizikes and Joe Mahr, Tribune Investigation: Courts drop most cases against frequently ticketed cabdrivers, Chicago Tribune, Sept. 23, 2011, at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ chi-tribune-investigation-courts-drop-most-cases-against-frequently- ticketed-cab-drivers-20110922-story.html
  7. Rules and Regulations for Affiliations, City of Chicago Department of Consumer Services Public Vehicle Operations Division, Dec. 23, 2001, at http://www.cityofchicago.org/dam/city/depts/bacp/rulesandregs/ rulesforaffiliations082909.pdf.
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Essay Sample: Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg Clean Energy Coalition

windmillsMark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates have announced the launch of a new grandiose initiative. The key aim of the Gates-Zuckerberg coalition is to encourage private sector investments in the area of clean energy. From the Zuckerberg’s side, the launch of the coalition now known as the ‘Breakthrough Energy Coalition’ was announced on the official Facebook page ahead of the COP21 climate change conference that took place in the capital of France, where global leaders were discussing all possible agreements regarding the limiting of temperature rise. Together with his spouse, Priscilla Chan, Mark Zuckerberg is launching the campaign in coalition with Bill Gates. As for the other members of the organization, they are the founder of Virgin Richard Branson, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos and the executive chairman of Alibaba Jack Ma.

In addition to that, Bill Gates is also expected to join the USA leader Barack Obama in announcing the launch of a special clean energy program in Paris. The program called ‘Mission Innovation’ is created with the main aim – to double all public investments in the sector of energy research – from the level of $10 billion to $20 billion. According to the information provided by The Washington Post, nineteen governments have already agreed to sign to the program mentioned above with China and United States among other.

According to the words of the coalition leaders, Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, the Breakthrough Energy Coalition is going to collaborate with countries that are nowadays participating in the Mission Innovation in order to encourage grandiose funding commitments for both basic and applied research. As said by the experts of the official web site, the coalition is going to also forward its funds to the early stage businesses that can boast of having the potential of an excellent energy future that generates next to zero carbon emissions, as well as provides every person with reliable and affordable energy. It’s necessary to point out that no funding totals have been revealed.

In one of the Facebook posts, Mark Zuckerberg has written that solving a range of problems with the clean energy is crucial to build the world that will be a better place for every individual. Besides, he also added that it is completely impossible to make significant progress and deal with any sort of challenges – like connecting or educating the global community – without a stable climate and reliable and safe energy. At the same time, the leaders of the breakthrough Energy Coalition inform that the progress within a sustainable energy system field is pretty slow at the moment. For that reason, it is important to re-build the current system in order to make it encourage the required innovations that will get us into a better and brighter future.

References:

  1. Bain & Company (2012), “Insights: A world awash with money”, www.bain. com/publications/articles/a-world-awash-in-money.aspx.
  2. Climate Action Tracker (2015), “Effect of current pledges and policies on global temperature”, http://climateactiontracker.org/global.html.
  3. Trieb, F., C. Schillings, M. O’Sullivan, T. Pregger, and C. Hoyer-Klick (2009). Global potential of concentrating solar power. In: SolarPACES Conference, Berlin, Germany, 15-18 September 2009.
  4. Viebahn, P., Y. Lechon, and F. Trieb (2010). The potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) in Africa and Europe: A dynamic assessment of technology development, cost development and life cycle inventories until 2050. Energy Policy, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.026.
  5. Bain, R.L. (2011). Biopower Technologies in Renewable Electricity Alternative Futures. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, in press.
  6. Bain, R.L., W.P. Amos, M. Downing, and R.L. Perlack (2003). Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology. TP-510-33123, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 277 pp.
  7. Neij, L. (2008). Cost development of future technologies for power generation – A study based on experience curves and complementary bottom-up assessments. Energy Policy, 36(6), pp. 2200-2211.
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Bitcoin Essay Sample

bitcoinYou have definitely heard a lot about Bitcoin. But…what is it all about? To cut it, Bitcoin is the most popular digital currency at the moment. The whole point is that the user is provided with an opportunity to use Bitcoin in order to pay for stuff without the necessity to approach a third-party broker. To make it simple, make sure to think about it like one huge ledger that is being shared by many users to complete many procedures: when one pays for something, or gets paid, the transaction is recorded directly on this very ledger. Then, the computers start competing to confirm the transaction though dealing with a range of math equations, and the winner gets the desired Bitcoins. That’s what the field experts call the ‘mining’. But there is no need to get too excited since only the computer powerhouses can get the Bitcoins that way.

So, what’s the idea? The digital currency made its debut in 2009, when the financial crisis broke out. The idea behind it was to deprive the central bankers and governments from power to control currency flow.

As for the creators of the Bitcoin reference and protocol software, an individual or a group of them known as ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ stand behind it. However, there are still bitter debates over who actually was the inventor. While some sources insist on the personality of 64-year-old Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto from LA, the others claim the man denied all sorts of facts regarding him being related to Bitcoin issues.

To start using Bitcoins, the user is supposed to install the ‘Bitcoin wallet’ app on the PC or telephone. Then, he or she can do the so-called ‘Bitcoin exchange.’
Using digital currency is possible in a few places such as the dating web site OkCupid or the Sacramento Kings. Zynga and Overstock.com are at the testing stage with the Bitcoin. Besides, the Winklevoss twins preferred Bitcoin to purchase tickets for the Richard Branson’s rocket ride.

What is so cool about Bitcoin, you may ask. It’s better to probably approach supporters to get the desired information. First of all, they will tell you the currency is a great option for the small businesses. Thing is, the stores are required to pay a specific fee to the card industry the very moment a client swipes a debit or credit card in order to cover the transaction processing cost. However, the fees like that tend to shrink when the clients use Bitcoin for the reason that the transactions are being processed by the competing computers.

The other idea comes from the fact that Bitcoin can be used by online users in developing countries, who do not have bank accounts, but use cellophanes instead. Or, as the founder of Bitcoin Investment Trust Barry Silbert said, those users, who live in the countries, where official currency tends to plunge, might consider Bitcoin as the gift from heaven. To add more, Bitcoin payments happen to be anonymous, which is a great advantage for the individuals, who care about confidentiality.

No one can really tell how the Bitcoin can be regulated, or who should be entitled to do that. But the truth is once a range of heavy regulations are imposed Bitcoin won’t be Bitcoin anymore.

References:

  1. S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Secure names for bit-strings,” In Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 28-35, April 1997.
  2. Back, “Hashcash – a denial of service counter-measure,” http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf, 2002.
  3. H. Massias, X.S. Avila, and J.-J. Quisquater, “Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirements,” In 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, May 1999.
  4. J. Camenisch, S. Hohenberger, and A. Lysyanskaya. Compact e-cash. Proc. Eurocrypt, 2005. 9.
  5. S. Canard and A. Gouget. Divisible e-cash systems can be truly anonymous. Eurocrypt ’07.
  6. K. Poulsen. New malware steals your bitcoin. wired.com/threatlevel/2011/06.
  7. F. Reid and M. Harrigan. An analysis of anonymity in the bitcoin system. Arxiv:1107.4524.
  8. M. Babaioff, S. Dobzinski, S. Oren, and A. Zohar. On bitcoin and red balloons. research.microsoft.com/pubs/156072/bitcoin.pdf, 2011.
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Sample Essay: Entrepreneurs Hold the Key to Solving World Problems

light bulbWhen we get in trouble, we tend to invent truly ingenious solutions. Same rule goes with the entrepreneurs, who don’t relax and make sure to impress the world community with stunning solutions to the most pressing problems. Here are some of the brightest green inventions.

  • Biochar or the process of carbon trapping with the so-called “green coal.”

It’s known that any sort of biomass releases carbon the very moment it decomposes. But the fact is that this biomass can be easily burnt by pyrolysis in a kiln in order to create biochar that is called “green coal.” Then the biochar is dug back directly into the ground to get the carbon locked into the soil. The most astonishing thing about the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The experts say that biochar can lock carbon for a longer period of time in contrast to any other sequestration form.

  • Ocean Fertilization or dumping iron dust into the water in order to get rid of carbon.

Taking into account the fact that oceans are the biggest sink we all have, it’s no wonder that they tend to soak up almost 2 billion tons of carbon annually. Through spreading iron dust on the waters of global ocean the human beings have an opportunity to trigger enormous plankton blooms that are as big as a typical small city. Then, the algae would absorb carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. The very moment the algae die, the whole bunch simply goes to the bottom of the world ocean and then – it gets sequestered directly on the seabed.

  • Coal – Natural Gas Conversion from Great Point Energy.

The experts of the Great Point Energy have successfully developed a special technique to convert coal into natural gas. The whole point is that natural gas tends to be a less dirty method to generate electricity, especially in contrast to burning coal. Taking into account how huge the coal deposits of the USA are, the Great Point technology is extremely important. The most amazing thing about it is that the water-based catalytic technology of Great Point can significantly speed up the process of coal – natural gas conversion.

  • Drinking Fountain Restore or the reinstate of bottle-free water.

It’s not that easy to say “no” to the bottled water. When thinking about the issue, there’s a question that pops up – where are all those incredibly nice fountains that were once donated by the philanthropists in the far 1800’s? Are they going to come back one day? The good news is that some of the community groups have special plans to bring the park drinking fountains to life once again.

The green inventions provided by the companies at the moment are pretty impressive. They exert every effort to generate breakthrough innovations that humankind is in need of in order to boost the quality of life.

References:

  • Batliwala, S. 1982. “Rural Energy Scarcity and Nutrition: A NewPerspective.” Economic and Political Weekly 17 (9): 329–33.
  • Bloom, D.E., and A. Zaidi. 1999. “Energy-Population Linkages in Developing Countries.” Paper presented at World Energy Assessment Lead Authors Meeting, London, March.
  • Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania. 2000. Penn World Table, http://pwt.econ.upenn.edu/
  • IEA (International Energy Agency). 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy fficiency. Paris.
  • Nakicenovic, N., and A. John. 1991. “CO2 Reduction and Removal: Measures or the Next Century.” Energy, the International Journal 16: 1347–77.
  • Roberts, P.C. 1975. “Energy Analysis in Modelling.” In I.M. Blair, B.D.Jones, and A.J. van Horn, eds., Aspects of Energy Conversion. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Sen, A. 1994. “Population: Delusion and Reality.” New York Review of Books 41 (15): 1–8.
  • Smith, K.R. 1993. “Fuel Combustion, Air Pollution Exposure, and Health:
  • The Situation in Developing Countries.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 18: 529–66.
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