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How to Create a Strong Financial Report

marketingWhat is a financial report? It is an information document that communicates strong and weak points of a company, helps to convince potential investors to throw the money behind the business. So, writing a strong financial report is what must be done to attract investors and let them take a closer look. But here comes another question, ‘How to write it?’

4 Basic Financial Statements

  • Balance Sheet
  • It is the information on the present condition of the company. It also includes the equity of an owner, liabilities, and assets.

  • Profit & Loss Statement
  • It gives data on all business operations, namely the income of the company, its profits and all expenses.

  • Statement of Earnings
  • This statement reports on the changes in company’s retained earnings.

  • Statement of Cash Flows
  • It includes the activities of the company (financing, operating, and investing).

Balance Sheet

The title of the first page of the report should be called ‘Balance Sheet’. Then there goes the company’s name and the effective date. The items are reported as of the specific day of the year. The assets are to be on the left and equity/liabilities on the right. List the assets held by the company, equity accounts, and sources of equity. Add the totals of equity and liabilities and check the balance.

Income Sheet

The page is to include the company’s name and the covered period of time. List the sources of the income. Don’t forget to mention the earned amounts. It is a must to report the costs of sold goods, record all the operating expenses, and include retained earnings.

Statement of Cash Flows

The page must include the name of the company and the time frame the statement will cover. You are to create an operating activities section that corresponds to the income statement prepared. Set an investing activities section that will correspond to the prepared balance sheet. Mention financial activities section that is related to the equity part of the balance sheet.

Don’t forget to sum up all the categories in the statement of cash flows. They should be labeled as the ‘Increase & Decrease in Cash’.

There should also be some essential notes added. They may contain data on company’s history or plans. For most companies it is a chance to explain what the report means, shows or doesn’t show. Notes are very important as long as they show the company to potential investors and partners from a different angle. This section is known for details about the stock option, tax situation, and pension plans.

Instead of glossing over various economic challenges, it is better to admit threats to the well-being of the company with no fear of chasing investors away. Such financial reports are used not only for large businesses and enterprises. When the company applies for a loan or any type of financial assistance, a report becomes a very valuable tool for accessing a financial status in the most accurate way, both business- and personal-wise.

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How to Compare Economies of Different Countries

businessWhen writing about the wide and varied field of economics, there are both national and global economic data to consider. This raises the question: with every nation being both independent and interdependent, with its own unique circumstances and policies, how to compare the economies of different countries?

There are many important tips to consider when discussing different national economies. The good news is that the growth of modern economies has been tracked for a long time, and abundant amounts of economic data exist per nation. While countries have changed over time, along with their economic policies, there is a number of factors to consider for each country to simplify the act of comparison.

Knowing what factors to analyze will allow you to write about different countries and their economies more accurately.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross Domestic Product, commonly referred to as a country’s GDP, is the most straightforward way to compare the economic growth of two different countries. The GDP is defined as a nation’s increase in economic productivity or the total value of the goods and services a country produces within a certain time frame. Many resources may reflect a country’s GDP in dollars, so it’s important to employ a currency converter for accurate comparisons between two different countries, such as between the U.S. and Mexico.

There are two approaches to measuring a country’s GDP per capita. The first method is a blanket measure that does not vary from country to country. Another approach is GDP Purchasing Power Parity – a relative measurement that incorporates factors particular to one country. The latter is more useful for accurate comparisons between different nations.

Unemployment Rates

Another way to evaluate and compare two different economies is by factoring in the unemployment rates of each. The unemployment rate is measured by the number of individuals who reported to be unemployed, divided by the total number of individuals qualified to work, or the total labor force. There are other factors within this criteria to consider as well, such as youth employment and long-term unemployment versus short-term unemployment.

Energy Production

The rates of energy production are a useful factor to consider when comparing two different countries. This sort of information includes the percentage of green energy, retail gas prices, the energy used per GDP unit, and energy use per capita. Many different institutions connect economic growth and a country’s energy production. When it comes to the economy, energy sources such as fuel comprise a large portion of the economy, so production and consumption levels are important to analyze.

Health and Education Spending

In terms of the amount a country puts into healthcare, there is a number of different statistics to look at. Health spending per capita can be compared to tangible outcomes in a single society, such as birth rates and death rates. Healthcare costs can place a drain on a country’s economy, as seen in the United States. This makes it an important factor when comparing economies.

The same situation applies to education, which plays a large role in the economy in terms of job training and student loans. Data outputs that can be referenced to each country include information such as literacy rates and marketable job skills.

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How to Write an Introduction for Assignment

Nobody will argue that most types of university assignments have to include an introduction part. As a result, the question how to write an introduction for assignment arises regularly on a weekly basis. One should pay special attention to this part of the paper due to its dual task of introducing the topic of the assignment and making the reader engaged in it. In fact, the knowledge of how to write an introduction for assignment involves the purpose of introductions, its structure rules, and the guideline in a thesis statement development.

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The Purpose

To begin with, one may distinguish three main objectives for a university assignment introduction. First and foremost, an introduction has to present the context of the issue. The latter will assist the reader in observing all the relevant information to the topic and demonstrate how deeply the writer understood the purpose of the assignment. Secondly, an introduction also aims at giving a direct response to the assignment question in a thesis statement. It comprises the main part of an introduction, as it illustrates the viewpoint that the writer will support throughout the rest of the paper. Finally, the third objective includes the observation of the structure and organization of the work. Reviewing the structure, it is unnecessary to provide a hefty amount of the details but just its key points.
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How to Write an Essay in English

Writing essays is an integral part of the education process in various learning institutions. It is a valuable exercise for advancing one’s writing skills and creative thinking. However, it may also become a challenge, in case the writer is not a native English speaker. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of several basic universal techniques that cover how to write an essay in English. At first sight, such type of work may seem to demand extraordinary experience. Nonetheless, it will promote the way to state one’s opinion on the particular subject. Moreover, knowing how to write an essay in English will certainly contribute a lot to the practical usage of grammar, punctuation, and spelling .

free writing

There are various topics to be covered when it comes to the essay, therefore, one has either to be an expert in that particular field or, at least, know about the fundamental points to write about in their texts. For that reason, it is preferable to search for an appropriate informational background and make one’s statement clear and thought-through.
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How to on Write Economic Theory: Proficient Guide

notebook and penWhen assigned with the task to complete a theory paper, college student must be ready to provide answer for the most basic question – why should I actually care? The key contribution of the economic theory lies in any of the following criteria: the paper must answer the question; the paper should posit a new model (the lens we see the world though); the model is used to speak to an important application; the model should identify a hooking economic force; the economic model should develop a range of brand-new empirical predictions; the project should make a technical contribution. These are but a few aspects you have to consider that we capture in our economics guide.

The Introduction

A typical introduction starts with the broad motivation that covers up to two paragraphs. Why do you think this area may be interesting? Your project can be motivated either by the application or via the literature. Provide 1-2 paragraphs to describe the contribution. Start with “the contribution of the project lies in…” to let the readers know your model. If you want them to understand your results, ensure to explain the setup, as well as your results. The main aim here is to provide a clear overview of your key insights. Tell your readers what you’re actually doing, the driving forces that brought up your results, as well as some important implications.

The Model Section

This is the core of the theory paper. Exactly this part is used to distill the way you’d like your readers to think about the particular economic problem. The theorems appears to be the most hooking and crucial insights that you’ve derived in the project. It is important to make sure the model simplifies the way people think about the problem. Do you have up to ten theorems? If yes, choose three of them that you’d like your readers to be aware of.

Taking into account the fact that most of the economic theory now is based exclusively on the game theory, the most traditional way to present the so-called game-theoretic model is through stating as succinctly as one can: Who are all the players? Are they capable of doing something? If yes, then what? What do the players know? What are the most important their preferences?

The Analysis

Working on this section is not as easy as it may seem. You must provide a crystal clear analysis while making sure your target readers can’t take their eyes off of your analysis. In other words, your task is to ask what your readers would like to learn from your work, and then present the material in the most precise way. Just like it goes with any other argument, your task is to first inform your readers on where you’re going, and explain why every other step is both interesting and crucial.

The Results

When presenting the results, it’s recommended to go through each of the steps described below.

Above the Result. Before providing your statement, ensure to provide all relevant definitions, remind your target audience if what they should be aware of and name the results in words.

Provide the Theorem. Ensure your readers won’t be required to go searching for more definitions once the theory statements are provided. Exert every effort to tip the presentation balance towards exceptional clarity; in your project, the result must be completely rigorous.

State Your Proof. If it happens to be boring and traditional, make sure to include it in the Appendix. In case it’s pretty interesting, then put it in the main text. If the key for your project lies in the analysis, it is recommended to include an empirical version before the theorem statement (in the main text).

Explain the Intuition. Make sure to state every result in a clear and simple English unless you know it should be technical and obvious. It is crucial to give a good explanation.

Talk about Empirical Implications. In case the result will be used a bit later in the project, or it has a range of empirical implication, ensure to inform your readers about that.

The tips offered in our economics guide are quite brief, which makes them easy to follow. At the same time, these professionally written guide is a perfect addition on your young economist’s career path.

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How to Build an Economic Model: Advanced Learner Guide

exam stressMany of college works in economics require building theoretical models needed to practice this discipline. There are some useful ways regarding how to build economic model that ease the process that in reality is quite chaotic.

Gather Good Ideas

That’s the point to start with. Make sure to search for your ideas outside the college books, papers and journals! Instead, pitch them in magazines, radio and TV programs, in conversations and newspapers. When you’re looking through the papers, pick the articles about economics. When it comes to the magazines, they always go deeper into various economic issues. Conversations are in turn always fruitful, in particular with the individuals engaged in business.

Before you start working on your idea, make sure to stop asking whether it is interesting for your reader. In case it is not attractive, people won’t care whether it’s appropriate and correct. So, ensure to try it out on your pals or parents. Find out whether they think it’s worth researching.

Get to the Modelling

The good news is that all economics models are the same. The so-called economic agents are required to make choices to advance their objectives. These decisions are needed to satisfy different constraints so there is something that can easily adjust to make the choices consistent. The standard structure involves the plan of attack: Who are the individuals who are about the make the choices? What kind of constraints may they face? In what way are they interacting? These simple questions will help you to identify the model segments accurately. When you have got an idea of how these sections should look like, it’s time to proceed to the next stage.

Explore the Literature

Now it’s time to conduct your thesis research. Besides, this is the point where you can actually learn something. Just make sure to carefully read the articles and see whether someone else started with the same ideas. This will help you to find out what you missed. The next scenario is that you’re possibly wrong. Maybe your idea is out of date. Maybe your analysis isn’t particularly correct. Contact your advisor to detect any misdirection in your investigation and start getting an independent judgment of your model.

Planning the Economic Model

Every student writes on a PC nowadays. That’s awesome since computers are real savers! For instance, you can create a special file called ‘Papers’ and then jot down the initial sketchy ideas that you have. In the following says you will take an occasional look at the outline. You will be able to move the segments around, add some details, etc. Once the ideas are properly organized, you’re ready to work on your first draft. Economic papers are like fine cheese. They need time to age and get enhanced. Put it aside for a week or two. This pause will provide your subconscious mind with a chance to take a different look at the idea and come up with something you’ve missed.

Hope these instruction on how to build economic model help. Once you have made the point, make sure to stop. A lot of projects tend to drag on for too long. Your readers won’t remember all the unnecessary content unless your name is John Ronald Reuel Tolkien.

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How to Build an Economic Model: Advanced Learner Guide

 exam stressMany of college works in economics require building theoretical models needed to practice this discipline. There are some useful ways regarding how to build economic model that ease the process that in reality is quite chaotic.

Gather Good Ideas

That’s the point to start with. Make sure to search for your ideas outside the college books, papers and journals! Instead, pitch them in magazines, radio and TV programs, in conversations and newspapers. When you’re looking through the papers, pick the articles about economics. When it comes to the magazines, they always go deeper into various economic issues. Conversations are in turn always fruitful, in particular with the individuals engaged in business.
Before you start working on your idea, make sure to stop asking whether it is interesting for your reader. In case it is not attractive, people won’t care whether it’s appropriate and correct. So, ensure to try it out on your pals or parents. Find out whether they think it’s worth researching.
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How to Write Certificate for School Project

A certificate for a school project is a document written for the purpose of confirming that a student has successfully completed a certain academic work, which was checked and graded by a teacher. As well as any other kind of documents, it has to meet a set of specific requirements so an educator should be well aware of how to write certificate for school project. Furthermore, this writing is important in case a project is to be used as a part of an application for a grant; therefore, teachers should know how to write certificate for school project in order to help their students to achieve a success.

 hands on mac keyboard

The Overview of a Certificate for School Project

As a rule, a certificate of a school project is a short and laconic document, which consists of only one or two paragraphs. In addition, it can include an image of a school symbol; for example, a logo or emblem. Moreover, the document should be confirmed with a help of a stamp or a signature. (more…)

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How to Write Documentation for a Project

The youth is fairly considered to be the most creative and innovative social group. At the same time, in many cases, the young people are incapable of bringing their bold and revolutionary ideas to life due to numerous bureaucratic and financial obstacles. In this context, the knowledge of how to write documentation for a project appears to be remarkably helpful for those willing to fulfill their dreams. In particular, there are numerous granting organizations and funds supporting the creative and smartly written projects. Moreover, knowing how to write documentation for a project would also be particularly helpful for each student while the project preparation represents one of the most important elements of the academic program.

Startup

The General Rules of Writing Documentation for a Project

First of all, it is worth mentioning that each granting organization, as well as an academic institution, provides its own requirements for the project’s format and structure. At the same time, there are several basic rules that are relevant and applicable to almost any type of the project. Particularly, the first recommendation refers to the language applied by an applicant or a student. Namely, all the documentation for a project should be written in an exceptionally explicit, precise, and clear manner. Secondly, it is recommended to avoid the unnecessary details and complicated thoughts in the text. Thirdly, the text of the project documentation should be persuasive in order to convince the grantor that the project is worth receiving the highest grades. In addition, it is often required to involve the exact figures and explicit data in the project documentation. Subsequently, in this case, the project documentation itself would serve as evidence proving the applicant’s professionalism and commitment to implement the project in practice. In particular, the guidelines for writing project documentation would be incomplete without outlining the major elements constituting the project.
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3 Tips on Cost Effective Analysis and How it Works

moneyIt is said that perfect preparation prevents poor performance. It’s true as cost effective analysis and development plan that were thorough to the last detail lead to success of every company. The economic efficiency of every enterprise depends on different factors and financial sustainability and prosperity is not a stroke of good luck. This is a result of competent management plan and cost effective analysis and all other complex factors that determine the results of the economic activity of the enterprise.

The key to stability and competitiveness of every enterprise is the financial stability that guarantees its investment attractiveness. And it can be reached due to cost effective analysis. The main purpose of cost effective analysis as opposed to cost-benefit analysis of each business entity is to assess the effectiveness of its economic processes and financial condition. Below you may find different tips and guidelines on how to conduct cost effective analysis in the best way.
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