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Writing Economics Essay Like a Pro: The 4 Cornerstones

spongebob writing an essayIn a range of educational establishments, the essay in economics accounts for almost 60% of the total student score. In other words, a thoroughly researched and professionally written essay is a key to obtaining the desired grade during the exam. To construct a correct answer within the essay, you have to be aware of the essential cornerstones of the economic paper writing in your project:

1. The Importance of Grasping the Question

Before getting into the process, it is important to understand the key point that stands behind the question. If you have troubles with that, ensure to rephrase the question. The simpler version of question will make it easier to deal with. As you answer, do not forget to keep reminding yourself of the essay question. It’s not a secret that usually students tend to start off excellently, but as the end of the project is approaching the question seems to get blurred. Make sure to keep in mind that once you fail to answer the question, your mark will have a lot to be desired.

2. Simplicity Is the Key

For clarity of thought, ensure to use a sample language when working on the economics essay. Writing as simply as you can will help you to avoid stuffing the sentence with too many ideas. If you write in clear and short sentences, you will never get lost in a never-ending flow of words and get the desired focus on one issue at a time. At the same time, Shakespearian grasp of language will always add some extra points to your mark.

3. The Answer Is a Must!

It’s so typical to see a candidate, who has sufficient knowledge in economics, but unfortunately provides zero answer to the question. The result is pretty lamentable – you, as the author of the economics essay, get the lowest mark (if you get any!) When approaching the end of every paragraph, ensure to ask yourself – does it somehow answer the question? It’s a big mistake to wait till the last sentence of the essay is written and you realize you’ve been keeping a completely different question in your mind.

4. Evaluate Potential Outcomes

The good old joke says 10 economists in one room will provide you with 11 totally different answers. The reason lies in the nature of economics and the economists. There is no 100% right answer, experts of the field say. Taking into consideration the other viewpoints is a must, as well as discussing various outcomes of a particular situation. That’s what they call evaluation.

As you get better at economic paper writing, make sure to refer back to the question from time to time just not to write off point. This will make your writing legible enough and enable you to obtain a good grade in the discipline.

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Minimum Wage Essay: Rates Up – Jobs Down

minimum-wage-essayAll over the United States workers are hardly making ends meet, usually staying at work for up to 50 hours for lower wages than they used to. One of the solutions includes the increased minimum salary of $10 per hour. Some of the American states have successfully implemented their own level of minimum wages that is higher than in the rest of the country. The other states are also considering potential changes.

The conservatives are extremely concerned about increasing the minimum wage level which may cause more businesses outsourcing their positions elsewhere – in the countries, where employees get less than $4 per hour (much less!).Their biggest fear is to be forced to pay employees over $10 per hour, which will make all US companies simply ship jobs abroad for wages lower than American workers would work for.

At the same time, liberals tend to consider the proposed increase a so-called moral obligation to ensure employees, who are engaged in a full-time job, have an opportunity to make a decent living – an annual income that left the poverty line behind. With that in mind, Barack Obama signed an order that guarantees all employees working on federal contract will get $10.10 hour minimum.

Some have already pointed at the idea that we must concentrate on the increase in the employee’s’ skill level, by means of academic support and requalification programs. The idea that workers with higher skill level would provide more jobs is not likely, seeing that so few products are still produced in the USA. Through rapid outsourcing of the manufacturing infrastructure, America had lost the very job opportunities that would require those better skills.

The heart of the problem lies in the fact that the current economy of the USA has been stripped of the manufacturing core, as well as its middle class jobs. For that very reason the US economy cannot provide an average worker with a job with a good salary. The issues like the USA decimating manufacturing base are usually caused by the agreements such as NAFTA.

The so-called ‘free trade’ agreements are the reason why the US manufacturers now have to compete with the countries of the third world, where the salaries are typically less than $4 per hour without any particular safety regulations. This made a lot of American manufacturing leave our shores.

Since well-paid positions in manufacturing field have left the territory of the USA, the workers with low skills set have switched to the service jobs that are low-paid, thus, taking the places that were usually filled by high school teens. Most of the jobs available now are created within the service sector. For instance, over 24 000 jobs provided last month were focused in restaurants and hotels. Even with excellent educational background all you can do is nothing since over the half of the recent grads are either underemployed or jobless.

To cut it, the policies that the USA is following nowadays should be changed through eliminating or modifying the existing ‘free trade agreements’. This will let the goods manufactured in the US compete all over the world. In case no appropriate measures are taken in the nearest future, the disparity of the wage will go on increasing, and there will be no middle class at all. And we all will have to serve to the plutocracy since there will be nothing but service jobs.

References:

  1. Thompson, J. P. (2009). Using local labor market data to re-examine the employment effects of the minimum wage. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 62(3):343–366.
  2. Reich, M. (2009). Minimum wages: Politics and economics. In Brown, C., Eichengreen, B., and Reich, M., editors, Labor in the Era of Globalization, pages 353–374. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Lester, Richard A. “Employment Effects of Minimum Wages.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, January 1960, 13, pp. 254-64.
  4. Burdett, Kenneth and Mortensen, Dale T. “Equilibrium Wage Differentials and Employer Size.” Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science Discussion Paper No. 860, North-western University, October 1989.
  5. Neumark, D., and W. Wascher. “Minimum wages and employment: A case study of the fast-food industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania: Comment.” American Economic Review 90:5 (2000): 1362−1396.
  6. Sabia, J. J., and R. V. Burkhauser. “Minimum wages and poverty: Will a $9.50 federal minimum wage really help the working poor?” Southern Economic Journal 76:3 (2010): 592−623.
  7. Daniel Aaronson, “Price Pass-Through and the Minimum Wage,” Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 83, no. 1 (February 2001), pp. 158–169.
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Economics Essay Style Guide

economics-essay-guideWhen writing on economics, make sure to stick to the core requirement – use the language that is understandable. Clarity of writing is the solid evidence of clarity in thinking. So, make sure to ponder over what you’re going to say, then say it in the simplest manner. Check the follow economics essay guide and learn more.

George Orwell offers a list of basic rules that can be applied even in the XXI century. First of all, Orwell recommends keeping away from using metaphors or any other sort of speech figures. If you see a short word will fit here or there, use it! The long one may spoil the scene. If it is possible to use active, never use passive – you’re on the right way. If you can easily choose an everyday English word, do so! A scientific phrase or a foreign word is not the best fit here.

Do Not Get Too Stuffy

When reading an economics essay, your readers appear to be interested in what you’ve got to say. If you want them to be hooked by your writing, never get stuffy. In order to write in plain English style, ensure to write as you or anyone you know would speak with ease.

Use Facts to Persuade Them

Readers do not like writers, who are either arrogant or hectoring. The point is that those people, who consider your viewpoints wrong are not necessarily silly or insane. People don’t like to be portrayed as stupid: use your analysis to prove issues. When you talk about your opinions – don’t just make assertions. Your goal is to tell your readers what you actually think and what is more important, persuade them! Using solid evidence, arguments and reasoning, you will find your way to success.

Do Make a Chat Room of Your Essay!

Being too chatty will turn your economics essay into a fiasco. That’s right, it is more irritating than explanatory. So, if you do not want your readers to throw your essay into the bin on the second paragraph, leave behind all the ‘ho, ho’ and ‘surprise, surprise’ stuff.

Exercise Brevity – It’s the Soul of Wit

Just like long sentences, long paragraphs can make the content pretty confusing. According to the successful essayists, the paragraph of the economics essay is a tiny unit of a particular thought. It’s not the matter of length. In other words, every paragraph you generate should be sequential in treatment. As for the paragraphs that comprise one sentence only, they should appear in your essay occasionally.

Don’t get too pleased with your work. It’s not a good idea to boast here and there of how smart you are by telling your target audience that you’ve got a scoop or that your predictions were 100% correct. This will definitely irritate them and any plans to impress them will eventually fail.

Economics essay is not the right project, where you can turn your didactic mode on. In case a lot of sentences start with the words like imagine, take, compare, prepare for, expect, note, remember or look at, your readers will get the feeling of reading a typical textbook. That’s not the best way to persuade your target audience to renew the subscriptions.

Regardless the audience you’re primarily writing for, they’re mostly interested in what you’re going to say. However, the style in which you present your viewpoints is your tool to encourage them either to keep on reading or just stop. If you want them to dive into reading, don’t forget what we’ve covered in our economics essay guide!

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International Economics Book Review Sample: The Shackled Continent: Power, Corruption, and African Lives

limuru

When the question is about the missionary on the dark continent, the very first thing you imagine are brave explorers carrying the Holy Bible and telling the tribesmen about Jesus. Not a bad option at all, but Robert Guest has something else to tell. With good old Economist, he’s ready to tell that every member of the benighted tribe community can be saved simply through entering the area of the free-market global capitalism. The latter is described by Guest as the tool that will bring the prosperity era to the continent and help to everyone to get rid of any local superstition.

It is necessary to point out that Guest appears to be excellently equipped for his mission. His breezy and plain style enables him to describe all the miseries and dreadful facts about Africans such as bitter massacres, poverty and even brigands at the local road-blocks. Besides, he’s known as the Economist’s African correspondent and editor, who truly believes the hard times that the continent is getting through are caused by the failure to build capitalism.

When staying on a small farm in Malawi, where Mr. Zimba had managed to build a small mud snack using a range of plastic bags as window frames, the author of the book came to a certain conclusion – there is no better and solid proof that the world’s poor are in need of what is called capitalism!

Using some good humor and compassion, Guest shows that nothing really works in the majority of the regions all over the dark continent: if the readers do not get the message, the author emphasizes it with lopsided letters in the headlines and the title. He portrays the people in Africa shackled by cruel governments, authority officials and rulers, who press so hard to destroy individual enterprise.

Despite all hope seems to be gone, Robert Guest remains positive. In the long run, the man is sure the country will eventually prosper. Every country can switch from being poor to wealth and comfort. And the best examples of such a transition can be seen in Japan and Italy.

In his book, Guest never views capitalism as something that only huge corporations are involved in. Instead, he insists that informal economy in Africa is crucial and supports the theories provided by Hernando de Soto. A famous economist from Peru say the dwellers in small and forgotten-by-God towns need to acquire property rights in order to get into the swing of things in the capitalistic world.

In the majority of dark continent countries, where greedy authorities enforce state controls, the importance of an individual free enterprise seems to be obvious, while the arguments of the author are pretty persuasive. However, when talking about the South Africa, Robert Guest doesn’t seem to be that convincing. Moreover, he doesn’t consider the past record of the Economist’s “cold-blooded world capitalism”, as well as anti-communist movement that led the team of the magazine to do battle with the sanctions and defend apartheid governments – that proved the key tool of the so-called peaceful revolution.

Instead, the author crudely explains the details of the transition: the USSR collapse encouraged the ANC (known nowadays as the most grandiose black liberation movement) to renounce the era of Marxism. That is why white citizens in the South African came to understanding that black rule did not include confiscation of their houses and other property. For that reason, they provided blacks with the right to vote via referendum.

Exactly that interpretation made capitalism unnecessarily cold-blooded for the globe. For it was the range of the USA banks, and all the sanctions imposed by the representatives of the Congress that started undermining apartheid long before the USSR fall. And exactly because of the western media support provided for the ANC they got persuaded they had more supporters in the west rather than in the east, and that it was a good idea to reconcile with the world capitalists.

Guest tells it’s important to apply the same explanations to the South Africa even today. The government’s efforts to protect and support workers have already led to the joblessness rise, Guest says. According to his words, corrective discrimination will never improve the life of human beings. How about the Afrikaner governments in the region that required English-speaking companies and banks to discriminate in their favor in order to let the middle class prosper?

It’s more than silly to believe the region can be saved through the application of a range of cruel free-market policies without taking into account the actual political costs. This can only stimulate new anti-capitalism movement. You, as a reader, have an opportunity to learn a lot from these pages; however, make sure to keep the political analysis in mind as well!

References:

  • Mundell, “The Theory of Optimum Currency Areas,” American Economic Review, September 1961, pp. 657–65, and R. McKinnon, “Optimum Currency Areas,” American Economic Review, September 1993, pp. 717–25.
  • Draper G    Writing  book  reviews.  Online  article.  Accessed  from http://library.uwaterloo.ca/libguides/1-12.html, 2007-12-08.
  • Stilwell F, 2010, ‘Environmental Policy: Beyond the Market’, Contesting Markets symposium, The University of Sydney, Sydney, September 30 – October 1.
  • Book review of: Economics as Religion From Samuelson to Chicago and Beyond By Robert H. Nelson Penn State Univ. 378p.
  • Brown, Ellen. “Time for a New Theory of Money.” org, October 29, 2010.
  • Lee, C.J., Hsien-chan Ho, Shing-Mei Chen, Ya-huei Yang, Soon-joy Chang, and
  • Hui-lin Wu. The Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Republic of China. Ta i p e i , Ta i w a n : Chung-Hua Institute of Economic Research, 1995.
  • Colander, David. 2005. From muddling through to the economics of control: view of applied policy from J. N. Keynes to Abba Lerner. History of Political Economy, 37 (Supplement 1): 277-291.
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Conservation Essay: Hunting Down the Endangered Species to Save Them

afrika safariThe illegal hunting and killing of rhinos and lions in South Africa and Zimbabwe have ignited a heated debate over the so-called trophy hunting, as well as the role it plays in conservation.

A range of claims have been made recently regarding the benefits that the trophy hunting brings to the economic segment of Africa. That’s where hunting is a big game that turns to be big business. The latter is reported to be estimated near $200 000 000 yearly.

The economic significance of the issue polarises the debates. On one hand, animal rights activists tend to protect the wildlife conservation, while the hunters claim that ‘sustainable’ use of wildlife is a must for the modern conservation strategies. Let’s take a look at some sources and studies to investigate the matter.

A lot of recent articles have informed on the revenues that come from the trophy hunting – over $200 000 000 on the black continent. According to the article ‘Biological Conservation’ published in 2006, there are many countries, where hunting industries are significantly developed. Among them Namibia, South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and others.

In terms of animals shot and visiting hunters, South Africa had the most grandiose hunting industry. The most significant was the trophy hunting in Botswana, followed by Namibia and Tanzania. So, the question is how much is South Africa actually earning from the trophy hunting? According to the estimation performed by the Department of Environmental Affairs of South Africa in 2012, trophy hunting generated near 807 million and 1 billion in 2013. The information obtained is based on the ‘species fees’ that come from the hunters to the landowners and farmers, as well as regular rates that are usually charged by the hunting outfitters in order to cover all accommodation and food costs.

The 1 billion that was gained in 2013 included the species fees of near 757 million, as well as 314 millions of daily rates, with 44 000 animals killed to get trophies in that particular year. It is important to mention that the figures provided above do not include indirect income gained from trophy shipping fees, taxidermy, tourism activities and companions that are not related to hunting. Neither does it include data regarding the hunting permits for particular species that are not mentioned in the “protected-and-threatened list” as these fees usually differ from one province to the other and are charged only at provincial level.

How does trophy hunting compare to the regular tourism? According to the recent reports, in 2013 tourism had contributed 323 billion to the GDP of South Africa. More than 8 500 trophy hunters come to SA annually, compared to almost 9,5 million tourists. In sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 18 500 hunters participate in related activities every year, according to the reports, generating near $201 million in contrast to the estimate provided by the World Bank – 33.8 million visitors in 2012 (with 36 billion earnings in US dollars.)

The local economists say that while the number of hunters, as well as the contribution they make to the GDP, is not huge, trophy hunters are spending more and more exceeding the average tourists.

In 2014, the investigators of the economic impact of hunting in Free State, Limpopo and Northern Cape provinces of South Africa found 4 558, 17 806 and 9 072 jobs (accordingly) depend on the hunting area, as well as the ones of individuals employed permanently on the game farms.

In the same way, the ex-chief executive of WWF SA John Hanks argues that in the areas with high wildlife density and beautiful landscapes, the potential for the photo tourism is greater than the one for the trophy hunting.

References:

  • LINDSEY,P.A.; ROULET,P.A. & ROMAÑACH,S.S. (2007): Economic and conservation significance of the trophy hunting industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Biological Conservation 134:455-469.
  • Booth, V. 2002. Analysis of wildlife markets. Report. World Wildlife Fund, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Whitman, K., A. Starfield, H. Quadling, and C. Packer. 2004. Sustainable trophy-hunting of African lions. Nature 428: 175–178.
  • Mbaiwa, Joseph E. 2004. “The Socio‐Economic  Benefits  and  Challenges  of  a  Community‐Based Safari  Hunting  Tourism  in  the  Okavango  Delta,  ” The Journal of Tourism Studies 15 (2): 37–50.
  • BAKER,J.E. (1997): Trophy hunting as a sustainable use of wild life resources in southern and eastern Africa. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5: 306-321.
  • Barnett, Rob, and Claire 2006. Sport Hunting in the Southern  African Development Community (SADC) Region: An Overview.
  • Ian Michler, ‘Botswana’s Great Lion Debate’, Africa Geographic, 01 January 2001 & Martin Hutter, ‘Utilization of Wild Living Animals, Conservation and Sustainable Development: Contradiction in Terms or a Promising Approach?’, Pro Wildlife, 2002.
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Summer Student Part Time Jobs No Longer a Thing?

ashton and michael kutcherPart time jobs during summer breaks seem to be less popular in contrast to the past, when students did their best to find a good place to earn some bucks on holidays. According to the recent researches, the number of 17-year olds getting a job during summer breaks has halved in the last two decades.

Hard to Get a Foot in the Door

The experts of the IPPR (the Institute for Public Policy Research) inform that while the university fees rising could make young people concentrate on their academic progress, the majority of employers require staff with previous professional experience for the part-time positions, thus, depriving students of a range of options easily accessible 20 years ago. The IPPR specialists called on the universities, schools and governments to help youngsters in acquiring professional experience that would cultivate the skills required by the employers.

Contrasts from the Past

The research conducted on the 17-year-olds engaged in both full-time studying and part-time job has halved in contrast to 20 years ago. At the same time, the number of 18-24-year-olds has dropped by almost a fifth. Twenty years ago, over 40% of 17-year-olds had a summer part-time job. Experts say it was crucial to have a summer part-time job in order to get to know the world of grown-ups and employment better. The research proved that without work experience, it’s not easy to show off the soft skills recruiters are on the lookout for. However, right after the recession that happened in 2009, up to 23% of youngsters with no prior experience were unemployed, in contrast to 14% with professional experience. The researchers also insist that education and work can be highly useful for students, who wish to boost skills needed for their future career, as well as to smoothly switch from college to work. But the reality is – the opportunities available nowadays are not enough.

Lack of Flexible Part-Time Job Opportunities

As said by the IPPR spokesman, not every college or university student would like to work – a lot of them give preference to some other activities. Moreover, with increased college fees and exam pressures, the majority of students might better try to work on their academic progress. But what the research doesn’t show is that a lot of college students have no job during the academic year or in summer – meaning they are unemployed and that they’ve informed they would like to have a part time job. The IPPR spokesman said that during summer 2015 up to 250 000 16-24-year-old had no job, which meant they had a strong desire to get employed but couldn’t. To add more, he also proved the kind of jobs college students used to get engaged in – such as retail, part-time work or sales – are nowadays highly limited.

So, is it really the end of the part-time jobs era? The surveys prove that even in case skilled and full-time jobs are accessible, they are quite hard for youngsters willing to combine work with full-time education. The problem is that the majority of the recruiters prefer to employ individuals with previous experience, while only 27% of employers choose those, who have just graduated. The reality is that it’s part-time job that help teens to develop professional skills rather than exotic trip. You’ve been to Zimbabwe for hell knows what reason (to save the world of whatever), but what’s the point if you have got no real experience?

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Repaying Student Debt and Staying Alive

student loanWhen it comes to repaying student debt, you’ll, most likely, find tons of various informative material available on the web. But the best way to somehow limit what you already owe is to start practicing the so-called smart borrowing. Make sure to get a picture of how much you need to borrow as well as how much you are actually borrowing. Consider some useful recommendations that will help you to estimate all costs properly and track the student loan debt.

  • Great Lake’s budget calculator is a great tool to manage any sort of budget while staying at school, as well as after graduation. Once you properly plan your budget, you will be able to keep up with the income and expenses. This will help you to ensure you are not borrowing more than you need or more than you can actually afford.
  • NSLDS or the National Student Loan Data System provides the user with a complete picture of all federal student dept items of yours. In case you have private loans, make sure to refer to the credit report. The latter includes information about your servicer or lender.

If you’re aware of what you owe and what kind of loans are waiting for you in the future – you will be borrowing only what you’re in need of.

Understanding capitalization and interest and how it all works won’t make the sum you borrow any bigger. When the question is about interest, the term is related to the cost of borrowing money. It starts building up the very moment you receive your loan money. Remember, the more you decide to borrow, the more interest you will be required to pay. At the same time, the lower your interest rate is, the less interest you will have to pay.

As for the capitalization, it appears when the unpaid interest is being added to the loan principal. Before the date when your first payment is due, unpaid interest is added to the amount you have capitalized or borrowed. When dealing with the federal student loan, expect the capitalization to occur only when it is required by the regulations of the Education Department.
The other way to easily hold down your costs is through making student loan payments while studying at a high school. If you have such an opportunity, ensure to make regular payments. In the nearest future, these payments will reduce both your principal and the amount of interest that will eventually capitalize.

Enjoy all the benefits of AutoPay. The latter is used to automatically withdraw any of the student loan payments from student’s savings or checking account on a particular date. This will help you to save your funds. Feel free to sign up for the AutoPay when being a high school student in order to save bucks in the long run. Besides, using the AutoPay tool means you will never miss the date of payment.

When you are repaying your student debt, everything can help. In case you have such an opportunity, make sure to pay more than you’re supposed to when you are in repayment. Remember, the more funds you’re able to give, the faster you will pay off the student loan.

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Uber Essay Sample

uberUber is used to connect riders with the drivers in what is related to the transportation. This in turn generates significant economic activity, as well as provides a range of economic opportunities. A great example of the total Uber’s impact can be seen in the City of Chicago. According to the most recent investigations of the issue, the total impact of the operations of Uber in the city was more than $46 million.

    As revealed by the study performed by ECONorthwest, the Uber’s technology platform has brought the following economic contributions:

  • The total gross impact on the economy of the city was up to $46 380 000 and as the time is passing by the impact is expected to be even larger. The economic impact is going to scale proportionately to the revenue growth of Uber.
  • In 2013, both the efficiency and the convenience of Uber’s tech provided 25 000 extra rides in Chicago that is more than the transportation market would ever do without Uber’s options.
  • Uber has also brought near 1 049 new jobs in the City of Chicago in 2013. But the thing is that Uber never hires drivers. The figure mentioned above includes the new direct jobs provided for the transportation providers and indirect jobs from transportation-related fields.

According to the experts, Uber has brightened financial future for many citizens and become the only source of support for many families.

In order to estimate Uber’s economic impact on the country’s macroeconomic level, the experts highlighted eleven cities with perfectly established Uber operations. The latter include providing three vehicle classes such as: UberX, UberBLACK and UberSUV. The overall economic impact of Uber is an actual sum total of every economic activity within the region that is linked to the business of Uber. This includes payments received from the Uber-Uber’s partners riders, all activities formed when partners begin to spend funds to provide rides, as well as all extra spending that partners tend to take on as a result of their income as drivers.

The additional value provided by Uber actually flows through every driver as well as supports additional economic activities even beyond the given ride. And finally, consumers also have a great opportunity to benefit from Uber economic rewards – by virtue of the fact they prefer to spend funds on the rides with Uber instead of the other alternative money use. That’s how the so-called ‘consumer surplus’ is being created.

The experts have estimated all incremental rides in a range of steps. With the help of the conservative estimates used for unknown parameters, the specialists have first revealed the implied perceived cost of each of Uber ride. It is important to mention that the calculation was performed on the basis of the estimated time cost of Uber, cross-price elasticity of the taxis demand and the observed market share of Uber rides. At the end of the process, the perceived cost was used in combination with the range of literature-based estimates of the demand price elasticity within the taxi field. The results have proven the expansion of the incremental supply of rides within the city.

References:

  1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Alcohol-Impaired Driving, Dec. 2013, at http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811870.pdf.
  2. Alliance Against Intoxicated Motorists, 2012 DUI Facts, at http://www.aaim1.org/resource_facts.asp.
  3. Dr. Robert Bruno, Driven Into Poverty, University of Illinois’ School of Labor and Employment Relations, at http://www.ler.illinois.edu/labor/ images/Taxi_Income_Report_-_Final_Copy.pdf.
  4. Emily Badger, Taxi medallions have been the best investment in America for years. Now Uber may be changing that, The Washington Post, Nov. 27, 2014, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/11/27/as-uber-fights-new-battles-over-privacy-an-older-war-simmers-with-thecab-industry/.
  5. I-Team: Cab Riders’ Gripes, Drivers Exposed, WLS-TV, May 13, 2014, at http://abc7chicago.com/archive/9535692/.
  6. Jason Meisner, Cynthia Dizikes and Joe Mahr, Tribune Investigation: Courts drop most cases against frequently ticketed cabdrivers, Chicago Tribune, Sept. 23, 2011, at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ chi-tribune-investigation-courts-drop-most-cases-against-frequently- ticketed-cab-drivers-20110922-story.html
  7. Rules and Regulations for Affiliations, City of Chicago Department of Consumer Services Public Vehicle Operations Division, Dec. 23, 2001, at http://www.cityofchicago.org/dam/city/depts/bacp/rulesandregs/ rulesforaffiliations082909.pdf.
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Essay Sample: Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg Clean Energy Coalition

windmillsMark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates have announced the launch of a new grandiose initiative. The key aim of the Gates-Zuckerberg coalition is to encourage private sector investments in the area of clean energy. From the Zuckerberg’s side, the launch of the coalition now known as the ‘Breakthrough Energy Coalition’ was announced on the official Facebook page ahead of the COP21 climate change conference that took place in the capital of France, where global leaders were discussing all possible agreements regarding the limiting of temperature rise. Together with his spouse, Priscilla Chan, Mark Zuckerberg is launching the campaign in coalition with Bill Gates. As for the other members of the organization, they are the founder of Virgin Richard Branson, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos and the executive chairman of Alibaba Jack Ma.

In addition to that, Bill Gates is also expected to join the USA leader Barack Obama in announcing the launch of a special clean energy program in Paris. The program called ‘Mission Innovation’ is created with the main aim – to double all public investments in the sector of energy research – from the level of $10 billion to $20 billion. According to the information provided by The Washington Post, nineteen governments have already agreed to sign to the program mentioned above with China and United States among other.

According to the words of the coalition leaders, Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, the Breakthrough Energy Coalition is going to collaborate with countries that are nowadays participating in the Mission Innovation in order to encourage grandiose funding commitments for both basic and applied research. As said by the experts of the official web site, the coalition is going to also forward its funds to the early stage businesses that can boast of having the potential of an excellent energy future that generates next to zero carbon emissions, as well as provides every person with reliable and affordable energy. It’s necessary to point out that no funding totals have been revealed.

In one of the Facebook posts, Mark Zuckerberg has written that solving a range of problems with the clean energy is crucial to build the world that will be a better place for every individual. Besides, he also added that it is completely impossible to make significant progress and deal with any sort of challenges – like connecting or educating the global community – without a stable climate and reliable and safe energy. At the same time, the leaders of the breakthrough Energy Coalition inform that the progress within a sustainable energy system field is pretty slow at the moment. For that reason, it is important to re-build the current system in order to make it encourage the required innovations that will get us into a better and brighter future.

References:

  1. Bain & Company (2012), “Insights: A world awash with money”, www.bain. com/publications/articles/a-world-awash-in-money.aspx.
  2. Climate Action Tracker (2015), “Effect of current pledges and policies on global temperature”, http://climateactiontracker.org/global.html.
  3. Trieb, F., C. Schillings, M. O’Sullivan, T. Pregger, and C. Hoyer-Klick (2009). Global potential of concentrating solar power. In: SolarPACES Conference, Berlin, Germany, 15-18 September 2009.
  4. Viebahn, P., Y. Lechon, and F. Trieb (2010). The potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) in Africa and Europe: A dynamic assessment of technology development, cost development and life cycle inventories until 2050. Energy Policy, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.026.
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Writing an Economic History Paper: How to Approach

writingWhen approaching the economic history, one should apply high-powered statistical methods in order to analyze quantitative economic data. The experts of the field recommend treating all economic elements and processes as both complex and unique historical events. Further our economic history essay guide will give you better idea of the process.

Meet the North’s Approach

Douglas C. North, one of the pioneers of the new economic history, offers his own method to approach economic history. He points out the relationship economic history posts between the history and the theory. For North, the Nobel Prize winner, history is the very source of the so-called ‘empirical evidence’ that is a perfect statistical data. The latter is the issue against which the economic history is being usually tested. In other words, once you make a claim to validity of a certain theorem, keep in mind that it will always remain defensible and tentative.

North also claims it’s impossible to both analyze and explain the issues related to the economic history without giving initial hypotheses, as well as testing them on the basis of the available evidence. As for the initial hypotheses, they usually come from the economic theory body that has developed in the course of the past two hundred years and is being endlessly tested and refined through empirical inquiry. The empirical evidence and precise measurement used to test the theory are provided by the statistics.

Revise Regularly

At the same time, it also means that one should continually revise economic history since the theory that is applied to identify the relations between historical events can be simply falsified at some point by a sudden evidence appearing in the ongoing historical process. To cut it, what the modern economic historians take as the close ‘relationship between the theory and measurement’ actually is the fierce circle that simply traps up every attempt to somehow invoke positivist precepts in the history interpretation. For in case the theory is being used in order to interpret any of the events that took place in the past can be canceled any time by the future events, then it’s not really clear whether the theory is the explained or the explainable when it comes to the historical research.

Evaluate the Existing Viewpoints

Evaluation is known as an integral part of the economic history paper writing. There’s a well-known joke that once you put ten economists in one room, you will 100% receive eleven different answers. You may wonder why. The point is that the nature of economics is that usually there’s no answer that can be considered as ‘correct.’ It’s highly important that we always take into consideration the other viewpoints, as well as debate over different most probable outcomes. That’s what is called the evaluation.

When the economic history project is almost done, make sure to ask yourself – how does my paper answer the question? If necessary, think about a one-sentence summarization that will bring a direct answer to your question. There is no need to wait till the last paragraph of the paper is done to realize you have chosen the wrong question to investigate if you did. Hopefully our economic history essay guide will help you prevent this.

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