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The World in 2018 Gala Dinner: 6 Main Questions to Be Raised

weddingThe World in Gala Dinner is a yearly event organized by The Economist – the renowned and famous all over the world newspaper of a magazine format. People who usually get invited to such an occasion are business leaders, high governmental officials and world’s most notorious academics. During the evening they share their bold insights and predictions that might define the global economy for the next year, and they do this in a casual atmosphere of cocktails, quizzes, lectures, and small talks.

Dinner Program

This year, the Gala Dinners will take place in Sofia on January 19, and in Athens on February 8. They usually begin with brief networking conversations over the cocktails. After that, the chosen speakers give their talks that contain thought-provoking contemplations over the economic future and inspiring predictions. The following activity is made up of a quiz that gives a chance to all Gala Dinner visitors to participate in an interesting, prediction-based questionnaire.

Among this year’s speakers, you will see the former Italian prime minister, the CEO & President of Xerox Hellas, the Chairman of the BoD, the Minister for the Bulgarian Presidency of the EU Council, and many other prominent people who will provide the listeners with valuable information.

6 Questions to Be Raised

The detailed program hasn’t been published yet, but judging from the previous years we can approximately state which matters the global leaders might discuss during the World in 2018 Gala Dinner. They may touch upon:

  1. The potential of economic growth in 2018. In 2017 a lot of states experienced the economic and political turmoil that led to stagnation, inflation, and decline. However, other countries managed to maintain the stable growth. Will the situation be similar in 2018?
  2. The struggles of Europe. Brexit, the weakened position of Angela Merkel and the reforms of the EU make the future of Europe indefinite and vague. But maybe the world’s best influencers will be able to shed light on this issue and share their thoughts.
  3. The economic rise of China and India. How will the economic growth of 2 most-populated countries impact the situations in the neighboring states?
  4. 2 technological leaders – the USA and China. The speed of innovations and their commercializing in these 2 countries affect the status of EU that right now holds a disadvantageous position in this field.
  5. The state of developing and developed countries. Due to the political fragmentation, many governments don’t have the opportunities to provide people with proper social conditions and education. Will this fact give a rise to non-profit organizations and unions driven to assist in the progress of developing countries?
  6. Donald Trump and international retreat. It is still unclear whether the new President plans to breach the terms of the international cooperation or just to renegotiate them. Anyway, in both cases, it is hard to predict the consequences.

The Economist’s Gala Dinner is exactly the event that can provide businessmen, investors, and researchers with valuable data that can be used to take important decisions. It is worth following it and taking into account the insights broadcasted during such an event.

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5 World-Famous Economics Universities that Train Well-Paid Professionals

teacherIf you think about opting for an economics degree after high school or just as a second higher education, this is always a good decision. Why? Because this field can offer you a wide range of positions – from market research analyst to a stockbroker or government official. In the USA, the average salary of an economist constitutes about $73K with the top compensation totaling in $141K. This should be a quite stimulating reason for you to consider a career in the economics domain. And while you’re weighing up all the pros and cons, we’ll present you a list of universities that can provide you with the most high-quality education in the field.

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  2. The department of economics at MIT has been functioning for over a century now. In the 1950s it was recognized as the world’s leading research center in this sphere, and since then, it has successfully maintained the title. The faculty earned the Nobel Prize, and many members are participants of the Econometric Society, the National Academy of Sciences, and other respectable scientific associations.

    The department offers undergraduate, postgraduate as well as PhD and doctoral programs, and guarantees many opportunities to display one’s skills and knowledge.

  3. Berkeley (UCB)
  4. Berkeley founded the economics department in 1903, and since then, it has been famous for its innovative approaches and highly qualified graduates. It holds the 3rd place in the US economics departments rankings according to the World Report and the US News. There are numerous interesting courses at your disposal and a wide range of additional lectures/seminars to satisfy your inner economist soul.

  5. The London School of Economics and Political Science
  6. This is one of the top-class schools that is the 2nd best educational institution in the social sciences in the world (rated by QS World University Rankings 2016-2017). 50% of its researches were classified as world leading in 2014. These numbers are impressive, but they are not the only thing that this university can propose.

    There are students from more than 130 countries, so the international diversity is guaranteed. In addition to this, LSE is partners with 5 other first-class colleges in the USA, China, Singapore, etc. This is a school with truly numerous resources and opportunities.

  7. University of Toronto
  8. The University of Toronto has a wide range of economics programs. What is more, they provide students with employment assistance and experiential learning. The university also organizes conferences that help keep the undergraduates abreast of all the news and discoveries in the economics world.

  9. University of Warwick
  10. The university claims to have reached a 90% satisfaction rate among students in 2017 within the economics department. It also takes the places among the first three educational institutions in various rankings for its proficient education and employment level of students. If you have a look at different numbers they state on their website, you’ll agree that it’s really worth taking into account.

    Contemplate over these 5 higher educational establishments to make the most out of the economics degree!

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The Currency: 6 Main Points that Influence the Cost of the Currency

moneyThere are many things that you don’t know about money. For instance, the US dollar is made of cloth, not paper, and printed with the help of high-tech ink with trackable properties. The interesting thing is that only 8% of all the money in the world is physical actual cash. The rest is stored in a digital form. But that doesn’t change the fact that it is the main tool of influence and living in our modern times.

There are more than 180 currencies out there, and they come under the impact of different factors that manipulate the currencies’ strength, value, and stability. We’re going to examine the main attributes serving as game changers to better understand the financial world.

  1. Inflation
  2. This process presupposes that the value of money drops down, and the goods and services start rising in price. It implies that the currency’s purchasing power declines.

    At present, among the countries with the lowest inflation, you can see Brunei, Israel, and Ireland. At the same time, the states with the highest inflation rate include Venezuela, Congo, and Angola.

  3. Interest Rates
  4. The higher the interest rates are, the more value the currency acquires. Why? Because they attract foreign investors and capital input. This way, the exchange rates rise and cause the currency to drive up the price.

  5. The Deficit of the Current Account
  6. The trade balance between a certain state and its partners is called the current account. When it is tilted, it can negatively impact the currency. For example, when the country is spending more funds on the foreign trade than it’s actually earning, it means that the state requires more capital from other countries – so, it borrows some money and its currency value goes down.

  7. Political Situations
  8. Foreign investors are more eager to pump money into the countries that are stable and offer at least a steady growth. However, when it is under a political turmoil, the economy can be unpredictable which inevitably influences the cost of the currency.

  9. Trade Terms
  10. The correlation between the export and import is very important for the currency fluctuations. If the export increases, consequently the demand for the country’s currency rises, and its value grows. At the same time, when the import is bigger than export, the situation affects the value conversely.

  11. Debt
  12. Once again, everything is connected with international relationships – when the country gains public debts because of funding the government or paying for public projects, it becomes less attractive for external investors. The reason for this is that debts cause inflation. There is also a case scenario that goes like this – the state prints money to compensate the debt, and such a sequence of events leads to the inflation as well.

    As you can see, there are, at least, six factors that manipulate the value of the currency. Of course, there are others, but the above-mentioned ones are enough to get a better understanding of the financial processes of your country.

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Sample Essay on Bill Payments: How Do People Survive?

moneyThis is a sample essay on the measures individuals have adopted to lower their bills. If you are required to write an essay on the same problem, you can use the points mentioned here to draft your paper.

With the cost of living raising with each passing day, individuals are forced to find ways to lower their bills so as to survive. By reducing their bills, people are able to spare some funds for their savings and use this amount when they retire or when emergencies arise. The termination of their employment contracts is another factor that forces people to reduce their spending. Without a regular paycheck, individuals may not be able to afford certain services in their homes, and only by reducing their bills, they are able to survive. This paper highlights some of the measures individuals adopt to pay less for goods and services.

Lowering the energy consumption in their homes is one of the ways individuals resort to reduce their household bills. Energy bills are usually the highest in most homes, and those looking to make savings and reduce their household expenditure find ways to consume less energy. They do this by replacing the light sources in their homes with energy saving bulbs and tubes. Heating and cooling of their homes is another area that brings about high energy bills, and to reduce this, individuals have invested in programmable thermostats that are energy efficient. These thermostats start up the air conditioner or the heater just before you arrive home, and this helps keep the power bills low.

Transportation costs also constitute a huge portion of the household bills and individuals have adopted measures such as buying energy-efficient car models and learning proper driving skills. Newer car models feature energy-efficient engines, and people are selling off their old models for the new ones. Speeding is one of the habits that reduces a vehicle’s fuel efficiency, and individuals are adopting moderate speeds when driving so as to reduce the fuel consumption in their vehicles. Families with kids are also opting for carpooling so as to save on fuel costs.

Entertainment and communication are other areas that individuals turn to when they need to reduce their household expenditures. People are increasingly using Skype and other online communication channels to talk to their friends and family rather than relying on paid mobile networks. They are also going for mobile networks that charge the lowest rates to keep their communications costs as low as possible. For their entertainment needs, people use one provider for their entertainment services so as take advantages of the discounts that come with bundled services. They are also very careful with their cable subscriptions with most only paying for the TV channels that they watch.

The tough financial times have forced individuals into reviewing their spending habits. People are doing away with luxuries as well as reducing their expenditure on basic services so as to survive.

References:

  1. Adika, C. O., & Wang, L. (2014). Autonomous appliance scheduling for household energy management. IEEE transactions on smart grid, 5(2), 673-682.
  2. Barbu, A. D., Griffiths, N., & Morton, G. (2013). Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen.
  3. Carroll, J., Lyons, S., & Denny, E. (2014). Reducing household electricity demand through smart metering: The role of improved information about energy saving. Energy Economics, 45, 234-243.
  4. Gans, W., Alberini, A., & Longo, A. (2013). Smart meter devices and the effect of feedback on residential electricity consumption: Evidence from a natural experiment in Northern Ireland. Energy Economics, 36, 729-743.
  5. Levinson, A. (2014). How much energy do building energy codes really save? Evidence from California (No. w20797). National Bureau of Economic Research.
  6. Nielsen, A., Lund, T. B., & Holm, L. (2015). The taste of ‘the end of the month’, and how to avoid it: Coping with restrained food budgets in a Scandinavian welfare state context. Social Policy and Society, 14(3), 429-442.
  7. Simcock, N., Walker, G., & Day, R. (2016). Fuel poverty in the UK: beyond heating?. People, Place, 10(1).
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Sample Essay on Supporting Programs: How Do People Encourage Needy People in the World?

poor personThis is a sample essay on supporting programs around the world. Not everyone can afford basic items such as food and medication. If you have to write an essay on the same issue, you can use this draft to learn how to structure your text.

Food, water, proper housing, and medication are some of the basic things that humans need to survive. Governments across the world must make sure that their citizenry can access all these services, but that is not always the case. Some of the things that people take for granted like regular meals and clean water to drink are in scarce supply in some parts of the world. If the stories in our news stations are anything to go by, then there are areas in the world whereby people struggle to have one balanced meal a day let alone the three that are needed for proper health, growth, and development. The results in malnourished children and ailing mothers who are not able to breastfeed their kids and take care of the families. In most of these countries, the poverty levels are quite high with a huge portion of the population earning less than a dollar a day and without the help of international organizations such as The United Nations, the situation would be worse.

Most of the supporting programs around the world involve the provision of foodstuffs, clean water, and medical supplies to the needy. The needy would be provided with grains such as rice, beans, and cooking oil for them to prepare meals for their families. Some agencies would also provide canned meat and fish so as to ensure that the meals are balanced and nutritious. To ensure that the needy people have clean water for drinking, cooking, and other household purposes, the aid agencies would drill dams and boreholes that offer a long lasting solution to the water scarcity problem. On the issue of medical supplies, the aid agencies and philanthropic countries would provide drugs to treat common ailments such as malaria, Tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Some would even bring their own medical personnel to treat the sick.

Natural calamities, war, and poor governance are some of the factors that create such situations of want. Famine and extreme floods wipe the earth off its plants and vegetation, and this creates a scarcity of food for the people. Wars take away young and energetic individuals that would have otherwise been involved in farming, and this creates a shortage of food. Wars also result in injury, and international aid organizations are, therefore, needed to provide medicine and treatment to the victims. Corrupt governments that embezzle funds meant for national development leave their citizenry without basic services such proper medical care, and other countries and agencies have to step in to save the people.

The poverty levels in some countries are very high to the extent that they cannot provide basic services to their people. These countries rely on donor aid and funding to ensure that their people can lead comfortable lives.

References:

  1. Blattman, C., & Niehaus, P. (2014). Show them the money: why giving cash helps alleviate poverty. Foreign Aff., 93, 117.
  2. Bodenstein, T., & Kemmerling, A. (2015). A Paradox of Redistribution in International Aid? The Determinants of Poverty-Oriented Development Assistance. World Development, 76, 359-369.
  3. Brown, S., den Heyer, M., & Black, D. R. (2014). Introduction: Why Rethink Canadian Aid?. Rethinking Canadian Aid, 1.
  4. Eichenauer, V. Z., & Knack, S. (2016). Poverty and policy selectivity of World Bank trust funds.
  5. Kwon, H. J., & Kim, E. (2014). Poverty reduction and good governance: Examining the rationale of the Millennium Development Goals. Development and Change, 45(2), 353-375.
  6. Mawdsley, E., Savage, L., & Kim, S. M. (2014). A ‘post‐aid world’? Paradigm shift in foreign aid and development cooperation at the 2011 Busan High Level Forum. The Geographical Journal, 180(1), 27-38.
  7. Packenham, R. A. (2015). Liberal America and the Third World: Political development ideas in foreign aid and social science. Princeton University Press.
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10 Key Tips to Handle Empirical Research Papers with Ease

writing with a penBeing a college or PhD student means that you have to deal with a great number of academic research papers, articles, and other writing. These types of assignments (especially the ones that are called empirical research papers) are usually very time-consuming and require a lot of efforts. The aim of such papers is to prove a certain hypothesis by the means of observation and experiment. In other words, you have to prove or disprove a statement by collecting evidence and data. The answer to an empirical question requires practical implementation of gained theoretical knowledge.

In order to facilitate the writing process and not to burn the midnight oil, here is a list of tips for you to follow when working on the empirical research assignment.

10 Tips to Write Perfect Empirical Research

  1. Study the Question
  2. Carefully investigate the question under discussion. Pay attention to all the details stated. Decide what kind of data you have to collect in order to complete the research.

  3. Define the Methodology of the Paper
  4. Think of the methods of investigation for your study. This type of paper enables you to use both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

  5. Structure the Paper
  6. Keep in mind that your paper should consist of the following parts:

    • introduction;
    • review of the literature;
    • description of implemented methods;
    • observation and experiment results;
    • discussion of the data;
    • conclusions;
    • list of references.

  7. Keep It Logical
  8. The empirical research aims to find an answer to a certain question. It follows that you have to provide a systematic, logical, and methodical investigation of the issue under discussion.

  9. Do Empirical Research
  10. The empirical research is impossible without observation: a scholar gathers information, data, and forms a hypothesis. Then, by using induction reasoning, you can formulate the hypothesis. Now, you can make some predictions by means of deduction reasoning. The next stage is testing of the predictions and their evaluation.

  11. Use Accurate Data
  12. As it was already stated, empirical research is a practical assignment that requires usage of up-to-date data and information. You cannot use approximate figures as your paper won’t have scientific importance.

  13. Make It Academic
  14. When writing a research paper, stick to the academic requirements provided by your teacher. Try to omit over-dramatic adjectives and filler words. Make your paper concise and keep it to the point.

  15. Make a Plan
  16. If you want to finish your paperwork before the deadline, you have to keep yourself organized. Make a plan that you can follow, so all the work is done according to the schedule.

  17. Results
  18. Once you get results of your investigation, try to present them by using charts, tables, etc. It will make your paper more interesting and catchy.

  19. Be Interested
  20. The success of your paper lies only in one thing – to what extent the topic of the investigation is interesting for you. If you’re passionate about the investigation, and it sets your brain to work, you’re going to succeed.

    Hope these tips will help you with empirical research writing. The assignment isn’t an easy one, but if you keep everything organized and put a lot of work to it, you’ll get the highest accolade from your scholars.

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4 Economy-Boosters That Keep Leading Countries on the Float

euro public domainCountries across the globe rely on different factors of the economy to bring about growth and development to its citizenry. Some of these factors are naturally-occurring while others are man-made. The success rate of these factors of the economy depends on how the authorities manipulate them for economic gain with competent governments able to use its technical expertise and know how to ensure sustained growth. This piece highlights some of the economic boosters that leading countries in the world use to stay afloat in the economic landscape.

  1. Trade & Industry
  2. Most of the leading economies in the world like Japan and China attained their status because of trade and industry. These countries are able to generate a lot of income from the sale of goods produced in their industries. The goods are either sold locally or abroad to other countries who for one reason or another do not manufacture those particular items. Electronics, automobiles, foodstuff, construction materials, and kitchen appliances are some of the things that the leading countries produce in their industries for sale. To remain competitive and keep their productions costs as low as possible, these countries have adopted technology in their production and manufacturing processes. Trade and industry have not only brought increased revenue for these countries but created employment opportunities for the youth, and this has helped them lead comfortable lives.

  3. Agriculture
  4. This is another factor of the economy that has helped leading economies in the Europe and Asia stay afloat. With most countries taking the industrialization route, the agricultural sector has been left unexploited and those that are still doing it earn a lot of revenue through the sale of agricultural produce. Rice, wheat, fish, soybeans, and palm oil are some of the major exports that bring a lot of revenue to the leading countries when they are sold abroad. Some of these food items are perishable but with advanced packaging technology, they can be shipped all over the world without going bad.

  5. Tourism
  6. Countries with amazing landscapes and naturally occurring features such as geysers and majestic beaches attract a lot of tourists that bring a lot of revenue. Wildlife and natural vegetation are other features that attract tourists from all over the world, and with proper management of the attractions, the countries are able to generate a lot of revenue, spur growth, and development. Brazil, India, Croatia are some of the countries blessed with tourist attractions. The fact that most of these attractions are natural means that will be available in the long run, and this guarantees continued revenue streams for the countries.

  7. Mining
  8. Minerals are quite valuable, and the countries that are blessed with huge benefits of them are able to generate a lot of revenue when they mine and sell them. South Africa has huge deposits of gold and diamond that generate a lot of revenue when they are sold globally.
    Countries across the world use different aspects of the economy to generate revenue for their operations. Above are some of the factors the top economies use to stay afloat.

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5 Economic Jobs That Are Going to Withdraw into the Shadows in the Next 10 Years

process engineering complete self-assessment guideEconomics is one of the lucrative career fields. It is for this reason that students seeking higher education scramble for the few slots available to economics students in colleges and universities across the globe. With proper training in economics, students are able to gain skills in market research and analysis, skills that are needed to ensure proper production and consumption policies in different sectors of the economy. Economics, however, is very broad and those who want to work in this field can choose different areas of specialization. Some sectors, however, are very popular among students while others are not, and this can be attributed to a decline in the demand for those skills in the industry. In this piece, we will highlight 5 jobs that are no longer popular among economics students.

  1. Statisticians
  2. This job basically entails analyzing data so as to come up with relationships and trends. Statisticians, therefore, crunch numbers on a daily basis, and it is this lack of spice and adventure that has seen economics students shy away from taking up jobs in this field. Statisticians are also required to be good at probability, calculus, statistical theory, and survey methodologies; these tough requirements also contribute to making a career as a statistician less interesting for college students.

  3. Claim Representatives and Insurance Underwriters
  4. The insurance industry is slowly, but surely embracing technology and at present automation is a key part of the industry. This spells doom for workers in the industry, and it is estimated that there will not be any need for claim representative and insurance underwriters in the next ten years as the software will be used to analyze and interpret clients’ data to determine insurance payouts. This realization has made it less desirable to work as a claim rep or as an insurance underwriter with economic students preferring other areas where human input is in high demand.

  5. Financial Analysts
  6. This is another area where technology has “snatched” the job from humans. Financial analysts were tasked with spotting economic trends and advising institutions accordingly but artificially intelligent software can do that job faster and at a fraction of the cost. Institutions are, therefore, investing in such software at the expense of human labor, and this has made training in this discipline less desirable.

  7. Accountants
  8. This was the dream job in the financial sector some time back, but that is not the case anymore. This is because everyone decided to study accounting in college, and this led to the saturation of the job market. Saturation has the effect of lowering the salary in a particular field, and this has scared away economics students from specializing in this field.

  9. Environment Economists
  10. Professionals in this field analyze environmental factors and their impact on the economic development. They then use the data to develop economic policies and to help agencies plan their activities so as to ensure minimal environmental destruction. Technology, however, has made it easy to monitor environmental factors, and this has reduced the demand for environmental economists. This has, in turn, made a career in this field less interesting to students.
    The adoption of technology, saturation of the job market and reduced income are some of the factors that have made careers in these fields of economics less interesting to college students. Scholars are, therefore, going for jobs where their skills are in demand and the salary is high.

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4 Kinds of Documents Every Economics Student Is Going to Face in a College

wps insurance brokers plymouthEconomics is one of the most influential courses around. Professionals in this field use their skills to come up with strategies and policies on investment, production, and consumer mannerisms that are needed to ensure institutions are profitable. A career in economics is also very lucrative, and professionals in this field earn huge salaries and bonuses every year. These are some of the things that entice students to take up courses in economics in college. Other than learning the concepts in economics, students are required to understand the various documents that they will come across in their careers and how to complete them effectively. Let’s now review some of these documents, how to fill them as well as their purpose in the business environment.

  1. The Balance Sheet
  2. This is by far the most important document in the financial sector. The balance sheet tells the exact financial position of a firm at a given time. It lists the value of the company’s assets, its liabilities, and the owner’s equity at that point. A balance sheet usually bears the name of the institution, the exact date of the statement and the unit of the currency. The assets are the physical resources that the company owns such as land, machinery, and processing plants. Liabilities are the firm’s debt and financial obligations. The owner’s equity indicates the finances provided by the owner to set up the business. The company’s assets must equal the liabilities and owner’s equity at that particular time for the company to be considered to have a healthy financial position.

  3. The Income Statement
  4. This document is known as the Profit and Loss Statement, and it indicates the firm’s financial performance regarding net profits or losses as at a particular time. It is calculated as the difference of the company’s revenues and expenses. The firm’s revenue includes what the company earned through sales and dividend income while the expenses are the costs incurred through salaries, wages, and rental charges. If the revenues exceed the expenses, the company reports profits, and if the expenses exceed the revenues, the company reports losses.

  5. The Statement of Retained Earnings
  6. The statement of retained earnings reports the movements in the firm’s net income and how the distribution of the firm’s dividends affected its financial position during an accounting period. Net income earned in that accounting period improves the statement of retained earnings while the dividends paid out to stakeholders decrease the retained earnings.

  7. The Statement of Cash Flow
  8. This document details the movement of cash within a business over a specific period of time. The cash flows are classified into 3 distinct categories. These are cash flows from operating activities (CFO), cash flows from investing activities (CFI), and cash flows from financing activities (CFF). CFO represents cash flows from the firm’s primary activities. CFI represents cash earned through the sale of the company’s assets while CFF represents the cash generated or spent when raising and repaying capital and business debts.

    Above, there are some of the documents students will come across when studying economics in colleges and in their careers. Students should, therefore, make an effort to understand them so as to become productive members in their workplaces.

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Sample Essay on Halloween: How Much Countries Spend on Its Celebration?

trick or treatThis is a sample essay on how various countries celebrate Halloween and how much they spend on the festivities. If you need to write an essay on the same topic, you can use the points highlighted here to draft your paper.

The weather has finally cooled off, and retail stores are stocking up on candy and scary costumes. Pumpkin carvings are also underway, and this means that Halloween is here with us. Most people imagine Halloween to be an American holiday, but the truth of the matter is that this frightful holiday has its root in Europe where it was first celebrated in Ireland about 2000 years ago in honor of the department members of the society. At present, Halloween is marked to celebrate our spookiness and dark side. People scare each other on this day, and they wear scary clothes and costumes to make it happen. They also share candy on this day with kids moving from door to door asking for treats. There are also parties that are thrown at this time for the adults to make merry and to indulge their sweet tooth just a little bit. The expenditure on Halloween has always been high every single time with people going out of their way to get the best costumes and candy so as to make a big impression.

Americans for example, are expected to spend close to $7 billion on Halloween this year with a huge portion of this amount going to purchase candy and Halloween costumes. Americans are keen on looking for creative designs for their costumes. American kids are persistent when it comes to getting candies when trick-or-treating during the Halloween night, and this requires every home to stock up on candies for Halloween. Horror movies are also the norm during Halloween with families renting movies for Halloween movie night.

The UK is not far behind when it comes to spendings on Halloween with an estimated 460 million pounds expected to be used for costumes and treats this year. The UK, however, celebrates Halloween differently than in North America with Halloween welcomed with bonfires and traditional foods like Irish fruitcake. There are party games as well where coins and other fortunetelling items such as buttons and rings are inserted into cakes and other foods that are eaten at this time. It is believed that such games can be used to tell the future with ladies believing that they will be married by the next Halloween; they should get a ring in their fruitcakes. The Irish also enjoy their beer, and they would indulge in lots of it at this time.

France is another country where Halloween is celebrated, but not as prominently as in North America. Spending on this holiday hardly exceeds the 100 million euros. A huge portion of this amount is spent on Halloween costumes and make-ups. The French also trick-or-treat but rather than going to homes asking for candy, they visit stores and retail centers.

Halloween is celebrated differently in countries across the world with North America being the most prominent. Spendings on Halloween also vary across the countries with the US taking the top spot.

References:

  1. Galembo, P., & Durant, M. A. (2002). Dressed for thrills: 100 years of Halloween costumes & masquerade. Harry N. Abrams.
  2. Jacobsen, B., & Zhang, C. Y. (2014). The Halloween indicator,’Sell in May and go Away’: An Even Bigger Puzzle.
  3. Lennon, S. J., Fatnassi, A., & Zheng, Z. (2016). Sexualization of Halloween Costumed Women.
  4. Mannucci, A. J., Tsurutani, B. T., Iijima, B. A., Komjathy, A., Saito, A., Gonzalez, W. D., … & Skoug, R. (2005). Dayside global ionospheric response to the major interplanetary events of October 29–30, 2003 “Halloween Storms”. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(12).
  5. Paez, T. (2017). Seven Disruptive Halloween Costumes. Catalyst.
  6. Shine, T., & Shine, R. (2016). Trick or treat?: The lingering dangers of Halloween for suburban fauna. Australian Zoologist, 38(1), 16.
  7. Wright, B. W. (2001). Comic book nation: The transformation of youth culture in America. JHU Press.
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