Repaying Student Debt and Staying Alive

student loanWhen it comes to repaying student debt, you’ll, most likely, find tons of various informative material available on the web. But the best way to somehow limit what you already owe is to start practicing the so-called smart borrowing. Make sure to get a picture of how much you need to borrow as well as how much you are actually borrowing. Consider some useful recommendations that will help you to estimate all costs properly and track the student loan debt.

  • Great Lake’s budget calculator is a great tool to manage any sort of budget while staying at school, as well as after graduation. Once you properly plan your budget, you will be able to keep up with the income and expenses. This will help you to ensure you are not borrowing more than you need or more than you can actually afford.
  • NSLDS or the National Student Loan Data System provides the user with a complete picture of all federal student dept items of yours. In case you have private loans, make sure to refer to the credit report. The latter includes information about your servicer or lender.

If you’re aware of what you owe and what kind of loans are waiting for you in the future – you will be borrowing only what you’re in need of.

Understanding capitalization and interest and how it all works won’t make the sum you borrow any bigger. When the question is about interest, the term is related to the cost of borrowing money. It starts building up the very moment you receive your loan money. Remember, the more you decide to borrow, the more interest you will be required to pay. At the same time, the lower your interest rate is, the less interest you will have to pay.

As for the capitalization, it appears when the unpaid interest is being added to the loan principal. Before the date when your first payment is due, unpaid interest is added to the amount you have capitalized or borrowed. When dealing with the federal student loan, expect the capitalization to occur only when it is required by the regulations of the Education Department.
The other way to easily hold down your costs is through making student loan payments while studying at a high school. If you have such an opportunity, ensure to make regular payments. In the nearest future, these payments will reduce both your principal and the amount of interest that will eventually capitalize.

Enjoy all the benefits of AutoPay. The latter is used to automatically withdraw any of the student loan payments from student’s savings or checking account on a particular date. This will help you to save your funds. Feel free to sign up for the AutoPay when being a high school student in order to save bucks in the long run. Besides, using the AutoPay tool means you will never miss the date of payment.

When you are repaying your student debt, everything can help. In case you have such an opportunity, make sure to pay more than you’re supposed to when you are in repayment. Remember, the more funds you’re able to give, the faster you will pay off the student loan.

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Uber Essay Sample

uberUber is used to connect riders with the drivers in what is related to the transportation. This in turn generates significant economic activity, as well as provides a range of economic opportunities. A great example of the total Uber’s impact can be seen in the City of Chicago. According to the most recent investigations of the issue, the total impact of the operations of Uber in the city was more than $46 million.

    As revealed by the study performed by ECONorthwest, the Uber’s technology platform has brought the following economic contributions:

  • The total gross impact on the economy of the city was up to $46 380 000 and as the time is passing by the impact is expected to be even larger. The economic impact is going to scale proportionately to the revenue growth of Uber.
  • In 2013, both the efficiency and the convenience of Uber’s tech provided 25 000 extra rides in Chicago that is more than the transportation market would ever do without Uber’s options.
  • Uber has also brought near 1 049 new jobs in the City of Chicago in 2013. But the thing is that Uber never hires drivers. The figure mentioned above includes the new direct jobs provided for the transportation providers and indirect jobs from transportation-related fields.

According to the experts, Uber has brightened financial future for many citizens and become the only source of support for many families.

In order to estimate Uber’s economic impact on the country’s macroeconomic level, the experts highlighted eleven cities with perfectly established Uber operations. The latter include providing three vehicle classes such as: UberX, UberBLACK and UberSUV. The overall economic impact of Uber is an actual sum total of every economic activity within the region that is linked to the business of Uber. This includes payments received from the Uber-Uber’s partners riders, all activities formed when partners begin to spend funds to provide rides, as well as all extra spending that partners tend to take on as a result of their income as drivers.

The additional value provided by Uber actually flows through every driver as well as supports additional economic activities even beyond the given ride. And finally, consumers also have a great opportunity to benefit from Uber economic rewards – by virtue of the fact they prefer to spend funds on the rides with Uber instead of the other alternative money use. That’s how the so-called ‘consumer surplus’ is being created.

The experts have estimated all incremental rides in a range of steps. With the help of the conservative estimates used for unknown parameters, the specialists have first revealed the implied perceived cost of each of Uber ride. It is important to mention that the calculation was performed on the basis of the estimated time cost of Uber, cross-price elasticity of the taxis demand and the observed market share of Uber rides. At the end of the process, the perceived cost was used in combination with the range of literature-based estimates of the demand price elasticity within the taxi field. The results have proven the expansion of the incremental supply of rides within the city.


  1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Alcohol-Impaired Driving, Dec. 2013, at
  2. Alliance Against Intoxicated Motorists, 2012 DUI Facts, at
  3. Dr. Robert Bruno, Driven Into Poverty, University of Illinois’ School of Labor and Employment Relations, at images/Taxi_Income_Report_-_Final_Copy.pdf.
  4. Emily Badger, Taxi medallions have been the best investment in America for years. Now Uber may be changing that, The Washington Post, Nov. 27, 2014, at
  5. I-Team: Cab Riders’ Gripes, Drivers Exposed, WLS-TV, May 13, 2014, at
  6. Jason Meisner, Cynthia Dizikes and Joe Mahr, Tribune Investigation: Courts drop most cases against frequently ticketed cabdrivers, Chicago Tribune, Sept. 23, 2011, at chi-tribune-investigation-courts-drop-most-cases-against-frequently- ticketed-cab-drivers-20110922-story.html
  7. Rules and Regulations for Affiliations, City of Chicago Department of Consumer Services Public Vehicle Operations Division, Dec. 23, 2001, at rulesforaffiliations082909.pdf.
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Essay Sample: Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg Clean Energy Coalition

windmillsMark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates have announced the launch of a new grandiose initiative. The key aim of the Gates-Zuckerberg coalition is to encourage private sector investments in the area of clean energy. From the Zuckerberg’s side, the launch of the coalition now known as the ‘Breakthrough Energy Coalition’ was announced on the official Facebook page ahead of the COP21 climate change conference that took place in the capital of France, where global leaders were discussing all possible agreements regarding the limiting of temperature rise. Together with his spouse, Priscilla Chan, Mark Zuckerberg is launching the campaign in coalition with Bill Gates. As for the other members of the organization, they are the founder of Virgin Richard Branson, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos and the executive chairman of Alibaba Jack Ma.

In addition to that, Bill Gates is also expected to join the USA leader Barack Obama in announcing the launch of a special clean energy program in Paris. The program called ‘Mission Innovation’ is created with the main aim – to double all public investments in the sector of energy research – from the level of $10 billion to $20 billion. According to the information provided by The Washington Post, nineteen governments have already agreed to sign to the program mentioned above with China and United States among other.

According to the words of the coalition leaders, Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, the Breakthrough Energy Coalition is going to collaborate with countries that are nowadays participating in the Mission Innovation in order to encourage grandiose funding commitments for both basic and applied research. As said by the experts of the official web site, the coalition is going to also forward its funds to the early stage businesses that can boast of having the potential of an excellent energy future that generates next to zero carbon emissions, as well as provides every person with reliable and affordable energy. It’s necessary to point out that no funding totals have been revealed.

In one of the Facebook posts, Mark Zuckerberg has written that solving a range of problems with the clean energy is crucial to build the world that will be a better place for every individual. Besides, he also added that it is completely impossible to make significant progress and deal with any sort of challenges – like connecting or educating the global community – without a stable climate and reliable and safe energy. At the same time, the leaders of the breakthrough Energy Coalition inform that the progress within a sustainable energy system field is pretty slow at the moment. For that reason, it is important to re-build the current system in order to make it encourage the required innovations that will get us into a better and brighter future.


  1. Bain & Company (2012), “Insights: A world awash with money”, www.bain. com/publications/articles/a-world-awash-in-money.aspx.
  2. Climate Action Tracker (2015), “Effect of current pledges and policies on global temperature”,
  3. Trieb, F., C. Schillings, M. O’Sullivan, T. Pregger, and C. Hoyer-Klick (2009). Global potential of concentrating solar power. In: SolarPACES Conference, Berlin, Germany, 15-18 September 2009.
  4. Viebahn, P., Y. Lechon, and F. Trieb (2010). The potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) in Africa and Europe: A dynamic assessment of technology development, cost development and life cycle inventories until 2050. Energy Policy, doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.026.
  5. Bain, R.L. (2011). Biopower Technologies in Renewable Electricity Alternative Futures. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, in press.
  6. Bain, R.L., W.P. Amos, M. Downing, and R.L. Perlack (2003). Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and the Technology. TP-510-33123, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, 277 pp.
  7. Neij, L. (2008). Cost development of future technologies for power generation – A study based on experience curves and complementary bottom-up assessments. Energy Policy, 36(6), pp. 2200-2211.
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Writing an Economic History Paper: How to Approach

writingWhen approaching the economic history, one should apply high-powered statistical methods in order to analyze quantitative economic data. The experts of the field recommend treating all economic elements and processes as both complex and unique historical events. Further our economic history essay guide will give you better idea of the process.

Meet the North’s Approach

Douglas C. North, one of the pioneers of the new economic history, offers his own method to approach economic history. He points out the relationship economic history posts between the history and the theory. For North, the Nobel Prize winner, history is the very source of the so-called ‘empirical evidence’ that is a perfect statistical data. The latter is the issue against which the economic history is being usually tested. In other words, once you make a claim to validity of a certain theorem, keep in mind that it will always remain defensible and tentative.

North also claims it’s impossible to both analyze and explain the issues related to the economic history without giving initial hypotheses, as well as testing them on the basis of the available evidence. As for the initial hypotheses, they usually come from the economic theory body that has developed in the course of the past two hundred years and is being endlessly tested and refined through empirical inquiry. The empirical evidence and precise measurement used to test the theory are provided by the statistics.

Revise Regularly

At the same time, it also means that one should continually revise economic history since the theory that is applied to identify the relations between historical events can be simply falsified at some point by a sudden evidence appearing in the ongoing historical process. To cut it, what the modern economic historians take as the close ‘relationship between the theory and measurement’ actually is the fierce circle that simply traps up every attempt to somehow invoke positivist precepts in the history interpretation. For in case the theory is being used in order to interpret any of the events that took place in the past can be canceled any time by the future events, then it’s not really clear whether the theory is the explained or the explainable when it comes to the historical research.

Evaluate the Existing Viewpoints

Evaluation is known as an integral part of the economic history paper writing. There’s a well-known joke that once you put ten economists in one room, you will 100% receive eleven different answers. You may wonder why. The point is that the nature of economics is that usually there’s no answer that can be considered as ‘correct.’ It’s highly important that we always take into consideration the other viewpoints, as well as debate over different most probable outcomes. That’s what is called the evaluation.

When the economic history project is almost done, make sure to ask yourself – how does my paper answer the question? If necessary, think about a one-sentence summarization that will bring a direct answer to your question. There is no need to wait till the last paragraph of the paper is done to realize you have chosen the wrong question to investigate if you did. Hopefully our economic history essay guide will help you prevent this.

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Most Informative Economic Review: The How-to

macbookWhen you’re required to accomplish an economic review for class, make sure to carefully consider the reason why an economic review should be conducted. First of all, its number one goal is to find out what interventions properly work in order to reduce a certain burden.

In order to complete an informative economic review, one should take certain steps. Our economic review guide is going to outline them for you below:

Set Inclusion Criteria
It is important to make use of intervention and population characteristic criteria from the review of a broader nature. Plus, make sure to take into consideration the information source such as the language of publication, its type and high income economies.

Perform a Thorough Literature Search
Make use of the economic key words such as cost-utility, benefit, cost-effectiveness, etc. Surf the databases that are specialized in economics. For instance, you will get some great help from sources like Campbell Cochrane Economic Evaluation and EconLit. Besides, it is recommended to take a look at the repositories of institutions like National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

Review More Complex Studies
Conducting a detailed research before the actual process of writing, make sure to approach the studies performed by the experts. This will provide you with an opportunity to see differences in opinions of experts within a particular area, as well as to properly weigh them up.

Rate Every Study
Before doing so, ensure to take into account only the studies that have satisfactory or better rates. It is important to base your quality rating on the following performance categories: benefit measurements, design, analysis, cost and effects. Make sure to assign every study with special marks, such as: unsatisfactory, satisfactory, good and very good.

Tabulate Your Results
In order to perform the conversion of the estimates from foreign studies to the United States dollars, make sure to use the PPP or the purchasing power parities. Also, incorporate the inflation effect with help of the CPIs or the Consumer Price Indexes for services and general goods, as well as for medical care. Consider the notion that benefits appear to be more desirable at the moment rather than in the future through the process of discounting.

Provide Summary Conclusions
If possible, make sure to produce summary economic estimates all over the studies. Provide your own conclusions on the economic attractiveness of interventions on the basis of the economic evidence weight.

Include Discussions
Provide the description of differences in methods and materials across the studies that are being investigated. Ensure to detect variables to which the summary results are especially sensitive and that are most likely to transform in case the intervention is being applied in predictable and specialized situations.

This concludes our economic review guide, finally, when dealing with the economic review, the crucial part is to identify gaps in the middle of economic literature, as well as not forgetting to suggest potential options for the future research.

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Bitcoin Essay Sample

bitcoinYou have definitely heard a lot about Bitcoin. But…what is it all about? To cut it, Bitcoin is the most popular digital currency at the moment. The whole point is that the user is provided with an opportunity to use Bitcoin in order to pay for stuff without the necessity to approach a third-party broker. To make it simple, make sure to think about it like one huge ledger that is being shared by many users to complete many procedures: when one pays for something, or gets paid, the transaction is recorded directly on this very ledger. Then, the computers start competing to confirm the transaction though dealing with a range of math equations, and the winner gets the desired Bitcoins. That’s what the field experts call the ‘mining’. But there is no need to get too excited since only the computer powerhouses can get the Bitcoins that way.

So, what’s the idea? The digital currency made its debut in 2009, when the financial crisis broke out. The idea behind it was to deprive the central bankers and governments from power to control currency flow.

As for the creators of the Bitcoin reference and protocol software, an individual or a group of them known as ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ stand behind it. However, there are still bitter debates over who actually was the inventor. While some sources insist on the personality of 64-year-old Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto from LA, the others claim the man denied all sorts of facts regarding him being related to Bitcoin issues.

To start using Bitcoins, the user is supposed to install the ‘Bitcoin wallet’ app on the PC or telephone. Then, he or she can do the so-called ‘Bitcoin exchange.’
Using digital currency is possible in a few places such as the dating web site OkCupid or the Sacramento Kings. Zynga and are at the testing stage with the Bitcoin. Besides, the Winklevoss twins preferred Bitcoin to purchase tickets for the Richard Branson’s rocket ride.

What is so cool about Bitcoin, you may ask. It’s better to probably approach supporters to get the desired information. First of all, they will tell you the currency is a great option for the small businesses. Thing is, the stores are required to pay a specific fee to the card industry the very moment a client swipes a debit or credit card in order to cover the transaction processing cost. However, the fees like that tend to shrink when the clients use Bitcoin for the reason that the transactions are being processed by the competing computers.

The other idea comes from the fact that Bitcoin can be used by online users in developing countries, who do not have bank accounts, but use cellophanes instead. Or, as the founder of Bitcoin Investment Trust Barry Silbert said, those users, who live in the countries, where official currency tends to plunge, might consider Bitcoin as the gift from heaven. To add more, Bitcoin payments happen to be anonymous, which is a great advantage for the individuals, who care about confidentiality.

No one can really tell how the Bitcoin can be regulated, or who should be entitled to do that. But the truth is once a range of heavy regulations are imposed Bitcoin won’t be Bitcoin anymore.


  1. S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Secure names for bit-strings,” In Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 28-35, April 1997.
  2. Back, “Hashcash – a denial of service counter-measure,”, 2002.
  3. H. Massias, X.S. Avila, and J.-J. Quisquater, “Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirements,” In 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, May 1999.
  4. J. Camenisch, S. Hohenberger, and A. Lysyanskaya. Compact e-cash. Proc. Eurocrypt, 2005. 9.
  5. S. Canard and A. Gouget. Divisible e-cash systems can be truly anonymous. Eurocrypt ’07.
  6. K. Poulsen. New malware steals your bitcoin.
  7. F. Reid and M. Harrigan. An analysis of anonymity in the bitcoin system. Arxiv:1107.4524.
  8. M. Babaioff, S. Dobzinski, S. Oren, and A. Zohar. On bitcoin and red balloons., 2011.
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Sample Essay: Entrepreneurs Hold the Key to Solving World Problems

light bulbWhen we get in trouble, we tend to invent truly ingenious solutions. Same rule goes with the entrepreneurs, who don’t relax and make sure to impress the world community with stunning solutions to the most pressing problems. Here are some of the brightest green inventions.

  • Biochar or the process of carbon trapping with the so-called “green coal.”

It’s known that any sort of biomass releases carbon the very moment it decomposes. But the fact is that this biomass can be easily burnt by pyrolysis in a kiln in order to create biochar that is called “green coal.” Then the biochar is dug back directly into the ground to get the carbon locked into the soil. The most astonishing thing about the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The experts say that biochar can lock carbon for a longer period of time in contrast to any other sequestration form.

  • Ocean Fertilization or dumping iron dust into the water in order to get rid of carbon.

Taking into account the fact that oceans are the biggest sink we all have, it’s no wonder that they tend to soak up almost 2 billion tons of carbon annually. Through spreading iron dust on the waters of global ocean the human beings have an opportunity to trigger enormous plankton blooms that are as big as a typical small city. Then, the algae would absorb carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. The very moment the algae die, the whole bunch simply goes to the bottom of the world ocean and then – it gets sequestered directly on the seabed.

  • Coal – Natural Gas Conversion from Great Point Energy.

The experts of the Great Point Energy have successfully developed a special technique to convert coal into natural gas. The whole point is that natural gas tends to be a less dirty method to generate electricity, especially in contrast to burning coal. Taking into account how huge the coal deposits of the USA are, the Great Point technology is extremely important. The most amazing thing about it is that the water-based catalytic technology of Great Point can significantly speed up the process of coal – natural gas conversion.

  • Drinking Fountain Restore or the reinstate of bottle-free water.

It’s not that easy to say “no” to the bottled water. When thinking about the issue, there’s a question that pops up – where are all those incredibly nice fountains that were once donated by the philanthropists in the far 1800’s? Are they going to come back one day? The good news is that some of the community groups have special plans to bring the park drinking fountains to life once again.

The green inventions provided by the companies at the moment are pretty impressive. They exert every effort to generate breakthrough innovations that humankind is in need of in order to boost the quality of life.


  • Batliwala, S. 1982. “Rural Energy Scarcity and Nutrition: A NewPerspective.” Economic and Political Weekly 17 (9): 329–33.
  • Bloom, D.E., and A. Zaidi. 1999. “Energy-Population Linkages in Developing Countries.” Paper presented at World Energy Assessment Lead Authors Meeting, London, March.
  • Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania. 2000. Penn World Table,
  • IEA (International Energy Agency). 1997. Indicators of Energy Use and Energy fficiency. Paris.
  • Nakicenovic, N., and A. John. 1991. “CO2 Reduction and Removal: Measures or the Next Century.” Energy, the International Journal 16: 1347–77.
  • Roberts, P.C. 1975. “Energy Analysis in Modelling.” In I.M. Blair, B.D.Jones, and A.J. van Horn, eds., Aspects of Energy Conversion. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Sen, A. 1994. “Population: Delusion and Reality.” New York Review of Books 41 (15): 1–8.
  • Smith, K.R. 1993. “Fuel Combustion, Air Pollution Exposure, and Health:
  • The Situation in Developing Countries.” Annual Review of Energy and Environment 18: 529–66.
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Sample Essay on Who Makes Decisions in the Sharing Economy?

345 george street sydneyWhat are the cases, when a company happens to be not a company? Probably, the great examples are Airbnb, TaskRabbit, Uber and Handy companies. All the organizations mentioned above seem to be more similar to the group of independent experts that prefer getting in touch with the clients by means of a common platform, in contrast to the typical businesses that tend to employ their personnel.   

And the same story was relevant up till the moment, when the members of the Labor Commission of California practically ruined the sharing economy in June. The whole story got started the very moment it was declared that one of the Uber drivers was a company employee, though before that the individual was considered an independent contractor. The ruling argued that being far from the so-called “typical technological platform”, the organization was “engaged in each operational aspect” starting with the number of rides of every driver and ending with the way they had to communicate with the clientele. There are still two lawsuits pending against the companies Lyft and Uber.

What kind of consequences should we make out of this chaotic universe? On the one hand, each of the companies is highly interested in enforcing consistency to promote their brands. However, on the other hand, the models of their businesses are predicated on whether they are capable to empower experts in order to independently render services.

The key to getting the idea of this new universe is the word “control”, experts say. Uber may turn to have some great reasons for taking control over some parameters of the service, like the price. At the same time, it appears pretty flexible in some other fields. This places Uber in the middle between pure employers and pure platforms. Even though almost everyone agrees that the main defining feature is the extent of the control mentioned above, there’s no actual sense seen among the courts of where that dividing line between the employers and the platforms should be.

There is nothing new under the sun. Same with the business world. Many various businesses have been organized as “conglomerations of people”, in which the companies held control over communication between the client and provider of the service. Some of the beauty salons make sure to hire experts and give them a full pack of high quality equipment and products, as well as work on the advertising. At the same time, the other beauty salons simply co-work with the independent specialists by renting out chairs and providing them with an opportunity to work and hook new customers.

For a long period of time companies have had a tendency to provide the others with this kind of freedom. But the fact is that platform models are getting more prevalent nowadays since “techs enables business owners to create and expand marketplaces for services, as well as adjust the level of control that has been exerted over interactions between the provider of the service and the clients”. So, the key question for the service marketplaces are the following: when they should start working as a platform (providing the experts with an opportunity to communicate with the clients on their terms) and when they should begin to operate as a typical business structure (hiring experts and controlling them).

There is an economic model that can be used to investigate this question. The model involves two types of decisions that directly affect the company joint payoffs and the specialists: transferable and non-transferable. As for the latter, these decisions are usually under total control of the specialists or the company. Transferable decisions can be made by any side.

In case transferable decisions are under the company’s control, the firm is functioning as a traditional business. In case the transferable decisions are under the control of the experts, the company is functioning as a typical platform.


  • Juliet B. Schor, True Wealth: How and Why Millions of Americans Are Creating a Time-rich, Ecologically-light, Small-scale, High-satisfaction Economy (New York: The Penguin Press 2011).
  • Edgar Cahn and Jonathan Rowe, Time Dollars (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1992).
  • Emilie Dubois, Juliet Schor, and Lindsey Carfagna, “New Cultures of Connection in a Boston Time Bank,” in Practic-ing Plenitude, eds. Juliet B. Schor and Craig J. Thompson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014).
  • Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Why Uber Might Well be Worth $18 Billion,” New York Times, June 9, 2014, available at; Evelyn Rusli, Douglas MacMillan, and Mike Spector, “Airbnb Is in Advanced Talks to Raise Funds at a $10 Billion Valuation,” Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2014,
  • Anny Fenton, “Making Markets Personal: Exploring Market Construction at the Micro Level in the Car-sharing and Time Bank Markets,” Unpublished paper, Harvard University, 2013.12.  Dubois, Schor, and Carfagna, op. cit.
  • Elliott W. Martin and Susan A. Shaheen, Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Car Sharing in North America, Mineta Transpor-tation Institute Report 09-11 (San Jose, CA: Mineta Transportation Institute, 2010).
  • Juliet B. Schor et al., “Paradoxes of Openness and Distinction in the Sharing Economy,” Unpublished paper, Boston College, 2014
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Sample Essay on Orlando the Investment Cat

ginger catIt’s not a thing to hide that a lot of professional and reputable wealth managers are faced with a strict criticism regarding how often they tend to change their price-lists. The funds they demand are way higher than they’re actually worth. For that reason getting a fluffy little one that either spends all day long sleeping in an arm-chair or scratches itself mindlessly is a new hit.

A stock-picking pro cat named Orlando managed to beat a group of investment experts and a team of students in a special stock-picking experiment. The latter was conducted by the professionals of the UK paper “The Observer.” Guess what? The winner of a year-long experiment was… the cat.

Every team was provided with a sum of £5 000 to use as an investment capital for five different companies. After every other quarter, the members of each group had an opportunity to swap out any stock they pick, if there was any. The homo sapiens participants did that in an old-fashioned manner, while the house cat simply threw a toy mouse directly at a grid of numbers that indicated different organizations. Things were getting better for the professionals in September, when their profit reached the £497 level, while Orlando’s return was £292.

However, in the last quarter of 2012 the fluffy expert stock picker managed to increase his profit to the level of £5,542.60! Thus, a ginger tabby has successfully beaten the two-legged participants by £366. As for the amateurs category that was represented by students, they’ve landed in the third place.

The members of “The Observer” community managed to describe the winning strategy of the cat. First, all but one of the cat’s stocks rose during the last quarter of 2012, including foam company called “Filtrona” that the fluffy investor had quickly swapped for Scottish American Investment Trust underperforming during September.

In contrast to the Orlando’s choices, the experts decided not to swap the stocks when the third quarter was almost over. But they paid the price. While Imagination Technologies fell by 16.8%, British Gas dropped by 19%. This has significantly dragged the professionals’ portfolio down.

The victory of a fluffy little stock picker, who turned up better than a well-paid specialist, made the experts smile, of course. The experiment proved that in real the experts of the Wall Street do not seem to know what they are actually doing. The whole point comes down to the fact that choosing stocks is an absolutely random process, just like throwing a toy mouse at the company logos. Even cats do mistakes sometimes, but the truth is that even a losing cat can do better in the investment segment than a skilled expert, and usually funnier than humans.


  • Rashes, M.S. (2001), Massively Confused Investors Making Conspicuously Ignorant Choices, Journal of Finance, Vol. 56(5), pg. 1911-1927.
  • Graham, J.R. (1999), Herding Among Investment Newsletters: Theory and Evidence, Journal of Finance, Vol. 54(1), pg. 237-268.
  • Elton, E.J. and M.J. Gruber (1995), Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis, 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Barber B.M. and T. Odean (2000), Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth: The Common Stock Investment Performance of Individual Investors, Journal of Finance, Vol. 55(2), pg. 773 -806.
  • Mark King. Investments: Orlando is the cat’s whiskers of stock picking, The Guardian, January 2013.
  • Paul Mladjenovic. Stock Investing For Dummies, Wiley Publishing Inc.
  • Jason Kelly. Neatest Little Guide to Stock Market Investing.
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20 Tips for a Solid Economic Research Paper

calculator on a tableIf you happen to have troubles when it comes to writing grammatically correct, the very first thing you have to do is to provide yourself with some extra time and go contact your economics research paper instructor. Truly, clarity is the cornerstone in writing on economic research. Below you will find some hot tips on how to deal with economic research project and make it top notch.

Tip №1:

Keep the project as simple as possible. Do not think about your reader as if he or she is nothing but a blurred image in your subconscious. Consider your room- or classmate being the potential reader. Assume he/she has never dealt with the subject before. Would the classmate understand any piece of content you produce?

Tip №2:

To mere mortals, a hilarious anecdote or a graphic metaphor is a better illustration than a whole bunch of the most compelling articles in Econometrics. However…

Tip №3:

If you are faced with the doubt of whether it’s a good idea to include some non-economics material into the research paper, leave it for now. There’s a tendency among students to include too many unnecessary details, rather than too few.

Tip №4:

Remember, overly dramatic verbs and adjectives are a taboo. Don’t ask, just make sure to leave them out.

Tip №5:

The sentences in the economic research paper are short. Does this rule work for your project as well? No? Check it once again to make it monosyllabic.

Tip №6:

The economic research paper filled with repetitions is boring. Cut, cut and make sure to cut once again.

Tip №7:

Point out one central contribution of the project. Discuss it within one paragraph. Just like the whole research paper, it must be precise and concrete. Do not talk pointlessly about how you analyzed the information regarding the economic consequences of the HIV epidemic and found a lot of interesting results. Just say what those results are.

Tip №8:

Your readers value their precious time and most of them are impatient. No reader will ever agree to read the economic research paper from A to Z. They tend to skim. Make sure to make it easy for your target audience to skim.

Tip №9:

The introductive part of the economics research paper should start with what the author does in his project, his major contribution. The very moment you mention that, it’s time to include something hooking about it. This will motivate your readers to go on with whatever you’ve written.

Tip №10:

You have to provide detailed explanation of what your contribution is so that your audience understands the idea. There’s no need to just state it, ensure to give the facts that stand behind it.

Tip №11:

The abstracts of the economic research paper are typically short, about 150 words. Try not to exceed this word limit.

Tip №12:

Feel free to divide your project in two sections, i.e. – experiments and observation.

Tip №13:

The first step is the hardest no matter what the case is. Same happens, when one needs to write the first sentence of the research paper. There is no need to start with the philosophical issues. Economists use the sentences that are both – interesting on their own and related to the subject.

Tip №14:

Are you done with explaining your contribution? Now you can generate a short literature review. Mind that it should be presented in a separate section so that your reader can skip it.

Tip №15:

Depending on the complexity of the paper, making a literature review may include referencing to a single paper or reviewing a great bunch of related literature in a library. Making notes is a must. Then you will have a chance to read them over and organize your review.

Tip №16:

Appendices are awesome. Make sure to take that huge section with tons of comments on the used literature, all those exercises you did and dump them into the appendix.

Tip №17:

Do not make use of the footnotes for parenthetical comments. In case you need those, just provide them in the text. As a rule, parenthetical comments in footnotes mean that the author hasn’t organized his thoughts and ideas.

Tip №18:

Do not use adjectives in order to describe your paper. The word combinations like “highly significant” or “terrific results” are a taboo.

Tip №19:

What are the most significant results that you have? Ensure to briefly explain what you have found in the process of the research and what the main complications of it are.

Tip №20:

You won’t believe but the conclusive part of the economic research paper is not a must-have for the project of this kind. If you did a great job discussing your contribution in the intro, and then explaining that information in the project’s body, it’s considered pointless to repeat it once again.

Use these tips while writing your economic research paper because they are designed specially for you. We hope they’ll help you ace at producing a great essay and your professors will be impressed!

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