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20 Up-to-Date Topics for a Research Paper on Economics

linkedInIn a topic area as vast and complicated as Economics, determining a research paper thesis can be stressful. When given an assignment, the best place to start is brainstorming potential topics. Each new idea can open up a world of research and writing that can help inform your Economics paper.

The more popular the topic, the more likely you will be able to find a number of resources to cite in your piece. Moreover, you have to seek out those ‘hot’ topics in Economics that will interest you, your professor, and your peers. Luckily, institutions publish new research on both national and global economies every day. Making your paper relevant to both you and your readership will allow you to make your essay meaningful and impactful.

Your writing may contribute to a growing field of study, opening up new areas of focus and new connections. Brainstorming and discovering the perfect thesis topic will help kickstart your paper.

Here are 20 potential Economics essay topics that reflect modern concerns, with new research, contributed to these areas on a daily basis all over the world.

  1. The Welfare State: A Reevaluation Under New Politics
  2. The Origins and Transformation of Supply and Demand
  3. Keynesian Economic Methods and the Current Economic Crisis
  4. Cost Versus Benefits: An Analysis of Higher Education’s Financial Reality
  5. LGBT Consumers and Market Impacts
  6. Confronting the Scarcity Problem: The Global Economy and Our Needs
  7. The Global Origins and Outcomes of the 2008 Economic Recession
  8. Room for Environmental Protections in a Modern Economy
  9. The Effects of Poor Health on a Local Economy
  10. The European Union’s Approach to the Economic Crisis
  11. The Economic Implications of Global Warming
  12. China as a Global Economic Power: History and Modern Influence
  13. The Ties Between Government and Economic Growth
  14. The Internet’s Impact on the Global Economy: Research and Trends
  15. The Rising Tide of E-Commerce: A New Economic Role
  16. A Place for Renewable Energy in the Modern Economy
  17. Immigration Policy and Links to Economic Growth
  18. The National Minimum Wage: Economic Impact of $15 Minimum Wage
  19. Analyzing Student Loan Debt’s Impact on the Economy
  20. Terrorism’s Links With Economics: The War on Terror and Markets

All these titles are suggestions. If a certain topic area interests you, consider brainstorming a way to make it work that fits with your assignment’s criteria. Due to the topicality of these areas of economic research, a quick search will reveal a number of studies and findings in these topic areas.

Further brainstorming might reveal a niche that has yet to be discussed in more detail. There is also the chance you can make new and insightful connections. There are a lot of ways to be original within the topics listed above. Make your research more specific and tackle an economic problem that has yet to be thoroughly explored in a particular region or field.

If you have difficult times making up a topic as well as constructing an outline, consider stopping at your campus writing center for advice on your next steps.

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How to Compare Economies of Different Countries

businessWhen writing about the wide and varied field of economics, there are both national and global economic data to consider. This raises the question: with every nation being both independent and interdependent, with its own unique circumstances and policies, how to compare the economies of different countries?

There are many important tips to consider when discussing different national economies. The good news is that the growth of modern economies has been tracked for a long time, and abundant amounts of economic data exist per nation. While countries have changed over time, along with their economic policies, there is a number of factors to consider for each country to simplify the act of comparison.

Knowing what factors to analyze will allow you to write about different countries and their economies more accurately.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross Domestic Product, commonly referred to as a country’s GDP, is the most straightforward way to compare the economic growth of two different countries. The GDP is defined as a nation’s increase in economic productivity or the total value of the goods and services a country produces within a certain time frame. Many resources may reflect a country’s GDP in dollars, so it’s important to employ a currency converter for accurate comparisons between two different countries, such as between the U.S. and Mexico.

There are two approaches to measuring a country’s GDP per capita. The first method is a blanket measure that does not vary from country to country. Another approach is GDP Purchasing Power Parity – a relative measurement that incorporates factors particular to one country. The latter is more useful for accurate comparisons between different nations.

Unemployment Rates

Another way to evaluate and compare two different economies is by factoring in the unemployment rates of each. The unemployment rate is measured by the number of individuals who reported to be unemployed, divided by the total number of individuals qualified to work, or the total labor force. There are other factors within this criteria to consider as well, such as youth employment and long-term unemployment versus short-term unemployment.

Energy Production

The rates of energy production are a useful factor to consider when comparing two different countries. This sort of information includes the percentage of green energy, retail gas prices, the energy used per GDP unit, and energy use per capita. Many different institutions connect economic growth and a country’s energy production. When it comes to the economy, energy sources such as fuel comprise a large portion of the economy, so production and consumption levels are important to analyze.

Health and Education Spending

In terms of the amount a country puts into healthcare, there is a number of different statistics to look at. Health spending per capita can be compared to tangible outcomes in a single society, such as birth rates and death rates. Healthcare costs can place a drain on a country’s economy, as seen in the United States. This makes it an important factor when comparing economies.

The same situation applies to education, which plays a large role in the economy in terms of job training and student loans. Data outputs that can be referenced to each country include information such as literacy rates and marketable job skills.

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Sample Essay “The Minimum Wage: What It Is Supposed to Be and What It Actually Is”

customerThe technical definition of a minimum wage is the lowest amount of money that an employee can be paid in exchange for their labor. Although minimum wages are the legal norm across the world, there are a variety of opinions on what they should be that vary across countries. The minimum is linked to standard of living for low-wage workers; proponents of reform believe that poverty and inequality are linked to the state of the minimum wage.

The need for policy concerning wages arose during the Industrial Revolution, when workers, particularly women and young children, were exploited for long hours and low compensation (Nordlund 1997). Days as long as 14 hours and harsh punishments were common, for a wage as low as a penny an hour, in some cases.

During this time period, the first countries to establish minimum wage laws were Australia and New Zealand in the 1890s (Levin-Waldman 2015). In 1909, provisions that allowed the negotiation of fair wages were created in Great Britain when they passed the Trade Boards Act. The United States took much longer to develop similar minimum wage laws. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created a federal minimum wage and overtime pay regulations through the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), amongst other New Deal reforms. Today, wage law is enforced through the Wage and Hour Division (WHD), which is a branch of the Department of Labor.

Laws concerning wage standards were only obtained after decades of labor disputes. Since the creation of these standards, wages have fluctuated and adjusted to the cost of living, though there is much disagreement regarding whether these changes have been satisfactory over time.

Many critics believe that the minimum wage still does not allow for a livable wage. Economists and politicians disagree on minimum wage’s relation to market prices and unemployment rates. Most look to monetary inflation and how it devalues standardized wages over time. There are many existing arguments for adjusting the minimum wage to inflation to restore consumer purchasing power.

But how is minimum wage determined? Different countries have different approaches to this. In the United States, the minimum wage is set by the federal government, and can only be adjusted through Congress. Many European countries, such as Germany and Italy, utilize collective bargaining. Labor unions are responsible for negotiating wages in their respective industries to determine minimum wages (Grimshaw, Bosch, Rubery 2014). In Britain, the minimum wage is consistently adjusted based on the Low Pay Commission’s recommendations (Dickens 2015).

In the United States, the federal minimum wage was raised to $7.25 in 2009. However, certain areas, such as New York State and Washington, D.C., have set laws raising that minimum even higher in order to adjust for economic inflation. According to the Pew Research Center, the federal minimum wage was the highest in 1968, which equaled around $9 per hour (DeSilver 2017). This means that the current federal minimum in the United States has lowered over the years.

In the city of Seattle, city officials looked exclusively at living costs, such as medical and childcare costs. From this regional information, they calculated a recommended living wage of $15.99 per hour (2014). Based on similar longitudinal studies, many groups push actively for a $15 per hour minimum wage.

Many different groups argue for minimum wages that fit the context of their locations. Often, at least in the United States, the government and representatives do not comply with such demands. However, we should say that the current federal minimum wage is insufficient to afford basic necessities in most communities.

Gradually, higher minimum wages have been achieved throughout the country. Meanwhile, those who are skeptical of the benefits can observe the outcomes.

References:

  • (2014). “Reversing the Trend: A Longitudinal Study of Living Wages and Minimum Wage.” Alliance for a Just Society. http://allianceforajustsociety.org/2014/05/reversing-the-trend-a-longitudinal-study-of-living-wages-and-minimum-wage/
  • (2016). “What Should the Minimum Wage Be?” American Institute for Economic Research. https://www.aier.org/blog/what-should-minimum-wage-be
  • DeSilver, Drew (2017). “5 Facts About the Minimum Wage.” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/04/5-facts-about-the-minimum-wage
  • Dickens, Richard (2015). “How Are Minimum Wages Set?” IZA World of Labor.
  • Grimshaw, D., Bosch, G. and Rubery, J. (2014), Minimum Wages and Collective Bargaining: What Types of Pay Bargaining Can Foster Positive Pay Equity Outcomes?. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52: 470–498.
  • Levin-Waldman, Oren M (2015). The Minimum Wage: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
  • Nordlund, Willis J. (1997). The Quest for a Living Wage: The history of the federal minimum wage program. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
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Millennials Might Not End Up Living Alone After All

photoOur world has changed significantly. It is not like it was even sixty years ago. Especially when it comes to economy. People are used to think that the United States have quite a high level of living standards, especially comparing to Central and Easters European countries. Recent crises, collapses and ongoing conflicts have great impact on the economy, which is thought to be one of the strongest in the world and the modern generation, which is referred to as millennials is to face the changes. They, actually, already face them in their everyday life.

The problem is as follows – in last decades the level of well-being has dramatically decreased. Prices get higher up, while salaries tend to become lower. So it leads to housing costs. The housing costs are highest where the job market is the strongest and it is nearly universal with few exceptions like Houston. Sounds like a vicious circle. The point is that millennials tend to move from towns to cities. It causes the influx of workforce but it does not solve all other issues. The main problem for them is the lack of well-payed jobs and adequate salaries. According to a recent analysis millennials pay from 33 per cent up to 54 per cent of their income on rent. Of course the numbers co-relate with the state they live in, but in general they pay more than an average renter does. The solution is clear and simple – share the rent with someone to save money. By now it has become a trend to have a roomie. Such a decision has positive impact on income as, in average, it allows to save some thirteen per cent. In Miami the number is even higher – having a roommate lets you save up to nineteen per cent. All in all, it gives an opportunity to pay less than thirty per cent of income on rent, what is considered to be pretty adequate expense nowadays. Some time before thirty per cent was the maximum people were supposed to pay, while now the average is up to forty per cent, in some places like San Francisco it can even reach unbelievable numbers like seventy per cent.

One may actually ask: “why is accommodation so expensive?”. The answer is pretty clear – there is not enough free property to buy or at least to rent. It fosters competition on the market which, as the result, leads to higher prices. And the fact is that the situation is not going to change any time soon nor in the near future. Some people though consider such a situation to be positive as it helps to establish strong social bonds and close friendships. For other it is positive from the perspective of flexibility – when you rent a flat or an apartment you are not bound to one place and if there is a need you can easily pick up the stuff and move where-ever you want. At the same time conservative people seek opportunities to buy property rather than spend money on rent.

References:

  1. BARTON, STEPHEN E. “Land Rent And Housing Policy: A Case Study Of The San Francisco Bay Area Rental Housing Market”. American Journal of Economics and Sociology 70.4 (2011): 845-873. Web.
  2. Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer. “Regulated Prices, Rent Seeking, And Consumer Surplus”. Journal of Political Economy 120.1 (2012): 160-186. Web.
  3. Colburn, G. and R. Allen. “Rent Burden And The Great Recession In The USA”. Urban Studies (2016): n. pag. Web.
  4. Cornette, Fanny. “Contemporary Housing Issues In A Globalized World”. Housing Studies30.6 (2015): 988-990. Web.
  5. Kim, Yong. “Accounting For Housing Rent-Price Ratios, 1975-2004”. SSRN Electronic Journaln. pag. Web.
  6. McFarlane, Alastair. “Rent Stabilization And The Long-Run Supply Of Housing”. SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
  7. Priemus, Hugo. “Rent Tax And Filtering Charge”. Housing Studies 7.2 (1992): 112-118. Web.
  8. Ptacek, Frank. “Updating The Rent Sample For The CPI Housing Survey”. Monthly Labor Review (2013): n. pag. Web.
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The New Era of Health Insurance with TrumpCare

medicineWith the election of Donald Trump many things have changed. The entire paradigm of the USA is going to be reviewed and altered in many ways. Such changes concern foreign policies, domestic affairs, social policies and of course health care system. During his rule ex-president Barack Obama introduced a health care system now known as ObamaCare. It is a set of laws concerning all health care issues. But now with the election of Donald Trump new changes are coming. In first weeks of his being elected Trump and his team stated that they are going to repeal and replace existing ObamaCare. It was the inception of what is now called TrumpCare. It is worth mentioning that TrumpCare is not yet a legitimate act, it is just a set of laws to be passed in order to change ObamaCare.

American society is now divided into two major groups: those who support TrumpCare and those who are sceptic about it, of course. Before judging that new system it would be better to understand the basis of it, to render the ideas it proposes and how it is going to influence citizens of the United States. There are some key points about TrumpCare.

It repeals the individual mandate (the tax penalty for not having Health Insurance Coverage). Under Obamacare, the individual mandate requires all eligible citizens to have health insurance, which makes coverage affordable nationwide, while the individual mandate will be eliminated under TrumpCare, thus giving people a chance to decide if they want to have insurance or not.

Provides coverage for those with pre-existing conditions. As Trump had mentioned, he likes requirements of the ACA, but coverage may become more expensive under this plan.

Allows children to stay on Parents Plan until they are 26. The idea is pretty clear, some people consider it to be a con, though.

Medicaid expansion is not impacted until 2020. For now it is the major point in the plan. Trump had mentioned that they are going to freeze Medicaid expansion, but the period of execution is significantly delayed.

Replaces subsidies with refundable Tax Credits. It was also mentioned that people may be able to deduct the entire cost of health insurance premiums from their federal tax.

Removes the 3.8% Tax on individuals earning more than $250,000 a year. Actually, it is more than removing that tax but removing the compulsory tax for employers to take care of their full-time employees. This one is a very controversial as it seems to be a “win” for higher-income Americans and businesses.

Places more focus on encouraging people to open Health Savings Accounts. This point seems to be quite smart, though saving account would already exist. It is hard to state whether it is good or not as people with those saving accounts are to spend thousands each year.

All in all, there are still many ideas stated by President Trump and his team. It is impossible to cover all of them, as they are still in draft and their development is an ongoing process, the result of which will be seen much later, probably after 2020 after the total freezing of Medicaid. By now we can only judge from our own perspectives and perception.

References:

  1. Greve, Bent. “Introduction – Obamacare – Implication For Social Policy And Administration In The United States”. Social Policy & Administration 50.4 (2016): 425-427. Web.
  2. Leimbigler, Betsy and Christian Lammert. “Why Health Care Reform Now? Strategic Framing And The Passage Of Obamacare”. Social Policy & Administration 50.4 (2016): 467-481. Web.
  3. Lyon, Jeff. “Fixing Obamacare Takes Back Seat, Poll Finds”. JAMA 316.22 (2016): 2348. Web.
  4. “Debating Obamacare”. Chemistry & Industry 76.9 (2012): 23-23. Web.
  5. Kamerow, Douglas. “What Now For Obamacare?”. BMJ (2016): i6063. Web.
  6. Yelowitz, Aaron. “Obamacare: A Bad Deal For Young Adults”. SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
  7. Kamerow, Douglas. “There’S More To Obamacare Than Health Insurance”. BMJ (2017): j338. Web.
  8. Bringedal, Berit. “Obamacare”. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 136.18 (2016): 1571-1571. Web.
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8 Reasons Why You Should Study Economics

designer at workEconomics is a live subject with tangible every day impact. Newspapers, magazines news agencies write tons of articles about current, past and potential future economic situation. Economics seems to have conquered thoughts of the modern world. Why study economics? Despite the fact that there are not many top notch professionals in economics, people still have great interest in the subject. And it is no surprise. Even basic understanding of how things work in economy gives us great advantages. And here are eight reasons why you should study economics.

  1. First of all, it is the importance of the subject. It is everywhere. In grocery stores, in drug stores, in cinemas, petrol stations. It is literally everywhere. Each time you spend or get money you become involved into a fascinating process of the economy. All countries are built and work upon it. Even that single fact is valid enough to start studying it at a university.
  2. Combined courses. When people enter universities they usually take one certain course to get the hang of it, while economics gives you vast range of options. You can combine your studying with almost any other subjects such as linguistics, law or any other topic you are interested in. For instance you have combined it with linguistics. Three years of studying for bachelor’s degree give you an opportunity to master at least one foreign language quite well. After all you can even become a specialized translator, if you job demands it. Knowing several languages opens you many additional opportunities as working for international of foreign companies, which otherwise would be impossible. Combining economics with law studying is quite popular as well. The bare fact of being proficient in two major everyday life spheres makes you quite a desirable worker.
  3. One of the most important things that attract young people to start their economics studying is that graduates have one of the highest rates of finding a job within six months after graduation.
  4. Independence. It is common knowledge that economics students devote great amount of time to independent study. Having experience in self-studying really prepares one for real life, where you are to take responsibility.
  5. It is lucrative. Being an economic forecaster or any other related specialist you may profit a lot. Economics graduates are among the top lucrative professions with about £42,000 earned in ten years after graduation.
  6. Flexibility. Economics has a very broad application base. Graduates can easily find jobs in civil services, industries or education. It becomes even more flexible when you take additional courses.
  7. Personal understanding. It was already mentioned above that economics surrounds us, in every aspect of our lives. So it seems to be of significant importance to see, but even more to understand how it works. The purpose behind taxes, how monetary exchanges work etc.
  8. It’s a good start. It provides the opportunity not to get a job, but to build a real career instead. Economics graduates are usually educated people who have gone through development of their analytical and critical thinking skills. It makes you an investigator and researcher. You can use your knowledge in different spheres. You can be an advisor, a forecaster etc.

So, why study economics? There you have it. That list can go on and on. The opportunities of studying economics are pretty obvious. The more you know the more wanted you are, especially if it comes to such vital knowledge.

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What Does it Take to Become a Financial Writer?

digital marketingSince humanity had invented writing systems and especially book press, writing became a major part of social life. People, as information consumers, want to read interesting and relevant articles on different topics. During twentieth century and with the beginning of twenty first century the demand on writings has become even higher. On top of that, economic and finance issues are hot-button topics nowadays. But before delving into details of our financial writing guide, it would be nice to get the idea who financial writer actually is.

Who is financial writer?

As it is clear from the name – a financial writer is a person who writes on a number of topics concerned with finance and economics. It may include educational content, commentaries, news articles or even printed editions content. Nowadays, though, the most popular form of that type of writing is writing for web resources on freelance base. Although some well known online resources hire fulltime employees as well.

Background

Now it is high time to move to describing essential background for being a financial writer. Usually financial writers are graduates with diplomas in economics or journalism. It is not necessary, of course, but having ground knowledge in those subjects gives you huge advantage as otherwise an enormous amount of work in self-education awaits you. It is impossible to write on a topic having mere understanding of it, after all. Further education, as for example master’s degree is not actually necessary, but again it would be better to earn one as usually well educated people with high degrees get more money for their work.

Skills

The skill set for a writer, no matter the subject, is usually the same. The most important one is critical thinking. As during their work writers operate with large amounts of information it is a must to be able to distinguish between true facts and fake. Then being a writer your style of leading through the article must be appealing, comprehensible and coherent. No one is eager to read a finance article written in a mind flow manner. As for specific FR skills a list can be very long but there are some which are considered to be of paramount importance:

  1. Analytical thinking
  2. Accounting techniques
  3. Modeling
  4. Forecasting

How to start

You should be prepared that likely there will be no employers eager to hire you without checking your writing skills. You can be also taken for a non-payed internship period. To avoid such cases you’d better have some already written articles to show your abilities. It is highly recommended to start during your studying at university to be ready to work just after graduation. You can even start with writing articles for a university newspaper or a community.

All in all, becoming a financial writer isn’t an easy thing to do. It is as complicated as any other trade but hopefully with this guide it will get a tiny bit easier for you. You should understand that working in such a sphere demands constant self-development and educations, you are to gain tons of experience before getting a job and even more after.

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Sample Essay on Old Age and Poverty

old person side viewAging has become a hot-button issue over several last decades. All Western countries face it and its aftermaths. The number of retirees is getting higher, while the number of young people seems to be declining with each year. There are many theories as to why it is happening now when at the beginning of the twentieth century no aging issues were even present. The answer is pretty clear – industrialization.

Industrial advancement in twentieth century fostered vast inner immigration. There was plenty of jobs available, new technologies made average life expectancy higher and financial well-being enabled people to have more children. With such a large amount of workers economies of the Western countries became way stronger. New taxation systems filled state budgets with money to make sure retirees have nice pensions. It worked pretty well for some twenty of thirty years. But then after babyboomers retired new generation took their working places. The point is that the new generation did not want to have that many children as babyboomers did. And that is the root of the problem. Industrial, or better to say post-industrial society, where people are supposed to spend their entire lives working somewhere in a city, requires permanent increase in population as the younger generation is to be taxed to get a certain amount of money to pension fund. If there is no constant increase of inhabitants, hence there is no money to support retirees to be. It is exactly what we are facing nowadays. If the average number of children in an average family during sixties and seventies was about three to four, later it dropped to two children and even more commonly to having a single child. In that way the number of future retirees jumped up while the number of young workers declined significantly and the situation is not going to change as modern trends and movements like child-free are very popular among the youth.

Different countries are trying to solve that issue in different ways. In Scandinavia, for instance, they decided to make taxes higher and it seems to be working there as social security sphere gains tons of money each month from taxes (usual amount of taxes in Scandinavian countries varies from fifty to sixty per cent). Among other alternatives appropriate for highly industrialized countries there is increased amount of work. In a nutshell it is just encouraging people to work longer before retiring. It is very controversial option, though. First of all many poor people there tend to work on physically hard jobs, and working some more additional years seems to be absolutely invalid. The more complex problem with extending pre-retiring working time is that the job market is not actually very well adapted for it. Another possible solution is outer immigration. Several European countries like Germany are now experimenting with such an option, by now though it seems to make more new problems than solve existing ones.

All in all we have to admit that the problem with seniors being left with very little money is of dramatic importance. It is not yet clear how it is to be solved, or even if it is possible to solve such a complicated issue at all. The main point is that we bear the responsibility to support and help those people, who spend great part of their lives upbringing us.

References:

  1. Barrientos, Armando. “Old Age, Poverty And Social Investment”. Journal of International Development 14.8 (2002): 1133-1141. Web.
  2. Breyer, Friedrich and Stefan Hupfeld. “Fairness Of Public Pensions And Old-Age Poverty”.SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
  3. Gustavsson, Nora S. and Ann E. Maceachron. “Poverty And Child Placement”. Journal of Poverty 1.2 (1997): 81-93. Web.
  4. Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter. “Old Age And Poverty In Developing Countries: New Policy Challenges”. World Development 28.12 (2000): 2157-2168. Web.
  5. Murphy, J. “The Poverty Of Liberalism: The First Old Age Pensions In Australia”. Thesis Eleven 95.1 (2008): 33-47. Web.
  6. “Report On Poverty Identifies Challenges Prevalent In Old Age”. Nursing Older People 23.1 (2011): 4-4. Web.
  7. Vukovic, Drenka. “Old Age And Poverty”. Zbornik Matice srpske za drustvene nauke 131 (2010): 165-175. Web.
  8. Williamson, James and Timothy M. Smeeding. “Sliding Into Poverty? Cross-National Patterns Of Income Source Change And Income Decay In Old Age”. SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
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The 5 Fundamental Types of Business Documents

marketingAll companies use different types of documents. It is actually impossible to run a business without any documentation. They are usually prepared and written by employees, though sometimes some specific types of documents require a profession from outside the stuff. So in this business documents guide we present to you the five main types of business documents:

  1. The most common one is Memorandum or just simply Memo. It can differ in shape and content significantly as there is no single structure and it can be used to convey various information. Usually it is handed-in between co-workers to communicate on business or work matters. With recent technological advancement memorandums are usually sent by e-mail, though when a case requires more privacy and security it can be done on paper in written form as it was common before. As a rule memos contain several paragraphs which are to inform a reader about the subject matter and of course identify the sender.
  2. Letters. Business letter is very similar to memoranda in form and purpose but there are significant differences. The main one which differentiates it from a memorandum is that it is used not for intraoffice communication but to contact with individuals from outside the office. Generally it involves customers, providers, applicants, freelance employees, officials and partners. Letters are drafted in block type with the left margin, except for the heading.
  3. Another important type is Report. Reports are written in a more formal way than memoranda or letters and contain larger amounts of information. This one deals with various things such as data, plans, figures. Reports tend to include different charts, images, statistics, poll results depending on the conveyed issue. It is not a rare case for to investors require financial reports to check the productivity. Some reports are done occasionally while other are periodic. Periodic reports use single unified structure for convenience.
  4. Transactional documents. As it is clear from the name, transactional documents are used for transacting business with partners or customers. As a rule TD are written in a very plain and straightforward manner to avoid any possible misunderstandings, but the structure may vary depending on the matter, for example if it is a transmission or an order. When a transactional document requires more professional attitude the company may ask their lawyer to draft it.
  5. The last type is Financial documents. This sort of documentation is held by accountants. The purpose is to count all the expenses and income to stay within the budged. It also deals with taxes, bills, payrolls, bank statements and income statements. Financial reports are issued by company owners to determine the financial productivity and identify weak spots in the business. They are also used to draft budget proposals by managers.

This business documents guide could have been way longer as there are still many different types and sorts of papers which didn’t make their way to the list above. But those listed there are the most common and used ones. Every employee working for a company will definitely deal with them often if not every day.

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Sample Essay: Mark Zuckerberg Working on Free Internet

richest person on earthAccording to the information provided by the famous Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, the mobile web is about to face the exciting future. At Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Zuckerberg was excited to announce that Facebook is getting ready to set up partnership with 3-5 significant wireless carriers to provide essential and absolutely free phone access to every individual all over the globe – with the direct emphasis on the developing nations.

At the present moment, only about one billion people around the world have mobile phones. At the same time, up to 80% of the rest of earth’s population lives within the places that have either 2G or 3G mobile web access, the Facebook CEO informs.

The problem lies in the fact that those individuals, who haven’t accessed the internet at all, haven’t the slightest idea of how useful it may actually be! Besides, they can’t afford the thousands of American dollars that it costs in the country (and the Europe as well!) to maintain a telephone together with the most suitable data plan. However, they have got two or three bucks needed to pay for the Facebook and messages basic access.

With an assortment of wireless carriers, Facebook is planning to invest in the basic phone access for every human being. The plans are an essential part of Mark’s clear vision for Internet.org, a straight initiative to provide a direct internet access to all people on the earth. The main aim is to provide every person with the basic data services, such as Facebook, weather information access, as well as search – everything free of charge!

In the countries, such as Paraguay or Philippines, Facebook has already successfully assured a partnership with the mobile carriers to make Facebook completely free for every person with the telephone in a pocket. The next step of the grandiose campaign is to expand the Facebook open access to the free basic web services access. The whole idea is about letting everyone know how the internet can quickly help change one’s life!

As for the first free connectivity that will be provided in a little while will be the text data that is quite cheap to deliver. And when users will finally get an idea of the video and streaming usefulness, the carriers will be there to provide quick one-click plans.

To make the long story short, the long-term aim of the campaign is to connect people from all over the globe. And even through the brilliant minds that stand behind the initiative will be losing money for a while at the start, the reason why Zuckerberg started Facebook was exactly the same.

References:

  1. George Beahm. The Boy Billionaire: Mark Zuckerberg In His Own Words (In Their Own Words)Dec 11, 2012.
  2. Noam, E. (2001). The next frontier for openness: Wireless communications. Draft paper presented at 2001. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Alexandria, VA, October.
  3. Mark Zuckerberg and David Duncan. Mark Zuckerberg: Online PersonasApr 24, 2015.
  4. Cyrus Peikari and Seth Fogie. Maximum Wireless Security, by. SAMS. (December 18, 2002).
  5. Carros, D. (2001). Mobile carriers: No single standard in sight. Tech Update ZDNet, November 28.
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