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Sample Essay on the Back to School Shopping: Do NOT Let It Hit You in the Pocket

foreign piggy bankAlong with autumn, when it is time to go back to colleges and universities, students face one more issue – expenses. They have to spend a lot of money on educational goods. If you want to cover this particular problem in your paper, look through this sample to get some ideas of what to talk about.

Besides the winter holiday season, August is the most expensive time of year as parents and students hit the malls for new clothes and school supplies. The average American family spends approximately $600 on back-to-school shopping. For college students, the figure adds up to even more because of the cost of textbooks and dorm room essentials. But there are a few tricks that budget-savvy college students can employ to keep this expense from derailing their finances.

One thing college students can do to reduce costs is to begin their shopping in a place where all the items are free: their own homes. By taking an inventory of household items, notebooks, pens, and pencils, they often find they don’t need to purchase as many items as they thought. They can also benefit from doing a thorough cleanout of their closets and donating clothing that they no longer wear. In the process, they may often find that a good amount of their clothing can still be worn, further reducing the amount they need to budget for new purchases.

Additionally, students should not dismiss the savings available by shopping at thrift stores and garage sales. These places offer gently used items such as rugs, lamps, and clothing at deep discounts. It may take some time and efforts to dig out useful or attractive items in such places, but it’s well worth it. It’s even possible to find some rare treasures to give the wardrobe or dorm décor a unique touch.

Another great place to find bargains on school and dorm supplies is at discount stores like Family Dollar, Big Lots, or Sam’s Club. Students who begin shopping at these stores early in summer and check in frequently can often find great deals, allowing them to save money on necessary items.

Possibly the best method of all for saving money on school supplies is simply to shop around and compare prices. Students can look for different bargains and do the math to see which ones will save them the most money. Apps like Google Shopping and Honey conveniently seek out the best deals on needed items. Some stores will even reduce their price if you find the same item at a cheaper price somewhere else.

The cost of back-to-school shopping may take many college students by surprise. But, it’s possible for students to purchase the items they need without breaking the bank.

References:

  1. Levin, Heather. (2017). 14 Tips to Save Money on Back to School Supplies and Shopping List. Money Crashers, https://www.moneycrashers.com/back-to-school-supplies-list-tips/.
  2. Matzek, Marybeth. (2017).6 Strategies That’ll Help You Save Money on Back-to-School Shopping. The Penny Hoarder: Deals, https://www.thepennyhoarder.com/deals/back-to-school-budget/.
  3. Schwahn, Lauren. (2017). Save More When Back-to-School Shopping Online. USA Today: Money, https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/personalfinance/2017/07/31/save-more-when-back-to-school-shopping-online/505883001/.
  4. Picchi, Aimee. (2017). How to Save Money on Back-to-School Supplies. Consumer Reports, https://www.consumerreports.org/school-supplies/how-to-save-money-on-back-to-school-supplies/.
  5. Ragusa, Gina. (2017). Back-to-school Deals: How to Save Money on Your Last-Minute Shopping – Even If You’re Not a Student. Mic: Payoff, https://mic.com/articles/183782/back-to-school-deals-how-to-save-money-on-your-last-minute-shopping-even-if-youre-not-a-student#.cpzNuCLlg.
  6. Stoffel, Michelle. (2017). 35 Ways to Save Money on Back-to-School Items. Go Banking Rates, https://www.gobankingrates.com/saving-money/save-money-back-school-items/.
  7. Kyle. (2017). 2017 Back-To-School Shopping Guide: 11 Smart and Easy Ways to Save Money. RatherBeShopping.com, https://www.rather-be-shopping.com/blog/2015/07/27/save-on-back-to-school-shopping/.
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Sample Essay on Google: The Way to Success

show the invite and add invited listWhen you want to talk about a successful company, you will hardly find a better option than Google. In this sample, we are going to disclose some interesting information that could inspire you to create a masterpiece on your own.

Google is one of the most used and well-known companies across the globe. Whether you are young or old, you have heard this name. How did they come to be and how did they shoot to stardom almost overnight? Their story is interesting, inspirational, and intriguing.

Stanford University in March of 1996 is where the story begins (Battelle, 2005). Two PhD students, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, needed a research project for Page’s dissertation. They focused on the mathematical properties of the web, essentially exploring how valuable it would be for web pages to know their traffic location (Wikipedia, 2017, History of Google.). The explanation is extremely technical when not broken down into basic terms.

Page used his own home page from Stanford as the initial starting point. To convert the data into usable, measurable information; they created an algorithm named PageRank. They believed that a search most relevant results were ones that included links directly to them from other web pages.

Immediately, Google was popular with web users. They found it simple to navigate and were happy with how relevant their search term results were. The next logical step was an expansion but neither Page nor Brin had millions to invest. Looking for investors, they received their first $100,000 from the co-founder of Sun Microsystems, Andy Bechtolsheim. Roughly one year later, they received $25,000,000 in equity funding. They went public in 2004, realizing a market capitalization of approximately $23,000,000,000!

Acquisitions were next for the tech giant who had an estimated worth of $350,000,000,000 by the end of 2015 (Their Net Work, n.d.). Since 2010, Google acquires one company per week on average. Among the best-known names now under Google are YouTube, Motorola Mobility, Adscape, reCAPTCHA, and Android Inc (Wikipedia, 2017, List of Acquisitions and Mergers). The main way Google earns income is from program advertising revenue – Adwords (Who Founded Google, 2008).

Purchases and mergers are not the only way Google is expanding. They are constantly creating new applications and rolling out newer versions of old favorites; such as Google Maps, Google Sheets, Google+, and many others. They are steadily looking for ways to make improvements to all of their products and services, resulting in an ever-changing technological landscape that can only benefit everyone.

September 15, 1997, was the date google.com registered as a domain. Just less than a year later, Google officially incorporated; working out of a friend’s garage. From their humble garage beginnings, Google just keeps on expanding. Their main corporate office is still located in California, but they have additional offices in more than forty countries (About Us, n.d) and everyone wants to work for them. More than 72,000 people are employed and they have ranked number one on Fortune’s list of best companies to work for in the last six years running (Google, 2017). Google is without a doubt the quintessential rags to riches story. From a garage space to the multi-billion worth, is truly amazing. Proving that determination grows success.

References:

  • About Us. (n.d.). Google. https://www.google.ca/about/
  • Battelle, J. (2005) The Birth of Google. https://www.wired.com/2005/08/battelle.
  • Google. (2017). 2017 Top 100 Companies to Work For. http://fortune.com/best-companies/google/
  • Their Net Worth. (n.d.). Google’s Net Worth. http://www.theirnetworth.com/Businesses/Google/
  • Who Founded Google. (2008). http://wanttoknowit.com/who-founded-google/
  • Wikipedia. (2017) History of Google. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Google
  • Wikipedia. (2017). List of Acquisitions and Mergers. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Alphabet
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Sample Essay on How to Gain the Promotion at Work

officeJob promotion is one of the troublesome issues that people face. Why not cover this problem in your assignment? This article will help you make up a good idea for your own college paper.

Most people start at the bottom but it is rarely the end goal. Getting a promotion is the main goal of most people. Not only does it mean a bigger paycheck, it also comes with a higher level of respect and responsibility. You have all the qualifications but how do you make sure the promotion goes to you? Start with planning!

Plan to improve your skills. A new skill set will open doors so consider going to school for an additional degree (W., n.d.). Options for night school classes are astonishing and although it may take you a bit longer than being full-time, the benefits at the end will be more than worth it.

The saying “dress for success” should be taken literally. When an employee dresses well for work, it shows that they take pride in their job and have an exceptional level of professionalism (Maye, 2013). It may be only a little thing but it is often the little things that get noticed.

When the clock starts, it is time to get serious (Adenle, 2009). This does not mean you can’t crack a smile during the day or have fun. It means that you must be able to turn your attention to your tasks. Minor mistakes are often made due to lack of attention. Being laser-focused on the work you must complete will eliminate errors and improve consistency.

Promotions rarely just fall into someone’s lap. To be promoted, the right people need to be aware that you want to be promoted. Although companies usually promote internally, they also look at external resumes (Smith, 2013). Competitors coming for an interview will be at their very best so it is crucial you do the same. Most managers make it their business to ask employees where they see their career path heading. Don’t be afraid to state your goals, even if they didn’t ask you first (Hanson, n.d.). Managers will pay more attention to a promising self-starter than to the quiet, almost invisible employee who keeps to themselves in the corner. Aside from that, you have to give it your best effort.

To get what you want, you must work hard for it (Prolific Living Inc., 2014). Simply doing no more and no less than what is expected is not good enough. Get to work early every day, even if it’s only 5 minutes. Stay ten minutes late at night to finish that important task. Volunteer to take on projects other employees have turned down. Doing this shows perseverance and dedication. Finally, you need to be personable.

Most importantly, have a friendly and positive attitude that shines through to everyone you interact with (Hudson, n.d.). Challenge yourself to do better every single day. If you follow these suggestions and constantly improve on everything you do, your promotion is going to be right around the corner!

References:

  • Adenle, C. (2009). How to Succeed and Gain Promotion at Work. http://catherinescareercorner.com/2009/08/20/how-to-succeed-and-gain-the-promotion-you-want/
  • Hansen, R. (n.d.). Moving Up the Ladder: 10 Strategies for Getting Yourself Promoted. https://www.livecareer.com/quintessential/getting-promoted-strategies
  • Hudson. (n.d.). How to Get Promoted. https://ca.hudson.com/getting-a-promotion
  • Maye, V. J. (2013) 7 Steps to Getting Promoted. http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/careers/sns-jobs-steps-promotion-story.html
  • Prolific Living Inc. (2014). 8 Reasons You Are Not Getting Ahead at Work. (And What to Do About It). http://www.fasttrackpromotion.com/getting-ahead-at-work
  • Smith, J. (2013). 16 Mistakes Employees Make When Trying to Get a Promotion https://www.forbes.com/sites/jacquelynsmith/2013/10/24/16-mistakes-employees-make-when-trying-to-get-a-promotion/#fb4819b35f15
  • W. (n.d.). How to Get a Promotion: 11 Steps with Pictures. http://www.wikihow.com/Get-a-Promotion
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Sample Essay on Unemployment: What Leads to It and Who Is Guilty?

formOne is always looking for someone to blame for all the misfortunes and failures, especially when it comes to job vacancies. There is a common idea of an American dream, according to which everyone has a job and is satisfied with how he/she lives and what he/she does. But the reality is far from being that perfect: unemployment keeps growing evoking depression and poverty among young and old.

Nevertheless, there’s more than just one reason for unemployment both in this country and around the world:

  • economic recession
  • changing technology
  • welfare payments
  • job dissatisfaction
  • economic inflation
  • racial discrimination
  • employee values

Regardless of the reason, experts agree to the idea that unemployment is a kind of a disease that affects countries regardless of their status. For example, the United States of America that people are hurrying to migrate to takes one of the leading place in the world unemployment statistics. Poor people are trying to make money in different ways. And it is tough to say, whether they manage to succeed even once in a while.

The above-mentioned reasons are called classic. Who is the one to blame? You won’t find a single person, who has triggered the process. But it’s the politics, groundless decisions, and a strong desire to show oneself rather than help that add to the common problem and its further development.

There is a list that differs from the one posted above. It shows why both large corporations and small companies can’t find matching workers even though there are so many people looking for a good job:

  • poor education: both the government and people do not take education seriously enough. Some graduates can’t defend what they have studied for years.
  • lack of skills: when a person is skilful, he/she can adapt to various conditions and environments. Such employee is ready to study even after graduation.
  • poor government plan: this cause is common in many countries. The government fails in minimizing unemployment and doesn’t care for the citizens.
  • poor moral: unfortunately, many people lose their jobs not because of their low competence, but due to moral actions.
  • corruption: it’s everywhere and when politicians use people’s money for their own needs instead of creating manufacturing industries, unemployment keeps growing.

One may say that this is the story about for people: Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, and Nobody. Everybody is to blame, yet nobody admits that. And even when there’s somebody, who is trying to help, does anybody appreciate that? It is a two-way street. And in most cases it is only up to an employed one to decide whether to keep moving or turn back and come to the place where it all has started.

References

  1. Amadeo, K. (2017). Overeducated and Underemployed: Thank You, Recession. The Balance. 17.
  2. Cappelli, P. (2012). Why Good People Can’t Get Jobs: The Skills Gap and What Companies Can Do About It. 23.
  3. Castells-Quintana, D., Royuela, V. (2012). Unemployment and Long-Run Economic Growth: The Role of Income Inequality and Urbanization. 153-173.
  4. Patton, M. (2015). The Five Highest Unemployment Rates in the World. Forbes. Forbes Magazine. 75.
  5. Structural Unemployment Crisis Stalking U.S. Economy. Reuters. October 6, 2009.
  6. Sullivan, A., Sheffrin, S. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. 330.
  7. Vedder, R., Gallaway, L. (1997). Out of Work: Unemployment and Government in the Twentieth-Century America. 25-26.
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Sample Essay on Taxes: A Little Thing for Rich and a Small Fortune for Needy

tax invoiceTaxes in the USA take many different forms. While working and making money, one has to pay income taxes. While buying things at stores, one has to pay sales taxes. If one owns property, he/she pays property taxes. And so on… It is believed that paying taxes is a civil duty and the requirement of the law. But in real life by giving the earned money to the local, state or federal government, you deprive yourself of chances and possibilities for a better life. And, frankly speaking, not everyone pays.

Not everyone pays federal income taxes, they say. Let’s try to make things clear. When the low income earner has children, there are deductions allowed on the filing. In other words, if you are a low income earner, you may pay less or not pay at all. Today there are around 7.9% of all tax filers, who zero out their taxes:

  • people on disability
  • unemployed people
  • school students, who’ve just started their career

However, the income tax is only one of the taxes. There are many other tax types that come out of checks:

  • social security
  • local and state taxes
  • school taxes
  • real estate taxes
  • gas taxes, etc.

Working poor pay very high rates on every dollar earned. They don’t even get an extra penny from working additional hours. The current text code creates perverse incentives and has perverse effects. One can hardly call it a rational policy and the government is not likely to do a thing about that. Most workers have to bear the burden of employer-paid payroll taxes and the burden of corporate income taxes or at least their part. What about the rich ones?

They pay much more taxes than poor ones, in terms of the percentage of income and absolute terms. However, there is a different side that only a few people know about: the rich ones do not pay all the taxes. Many people agree that rich Americans have to have a moral obligation to pay much higher taxes as a sign of a ‘fair share’. There is an idea that as rich people get much more from the society, they should give more for the public welfare. But will it really help the society increase?

Perhaps there is no point in arguing what is right or wrong. The only clear thing is that the taxes shouldn’t be the same for everyone. They are to differ depending on the income. Only when each society member gives a fair part of the income, he/she can contribute to the development of his/her country. But if this ‘fair share’ becomes a burden that deprives of most necessary things, the society will hardly ever become a model to follow.

References

  1. Donaldson, S. A. (2007). Federal Income Taxation of Individuals: Cases, Problems and Materials. 28-32.
  2. Gruber, J., Saez, E. (2002). The Elasticity of Taxable Income: Evidence and Implications. Journal of Public Economics. 1–32.
  3. Haider, S. J., and David S. L. (2008). The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply: New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data. Journal of Human Resources. 43.
  4. Lehmann, E., Marical, F., Rioux, L. (2013). Labor Income Responds Differently to Income-Tax and Payroll-Tax Reforms. Journal of Public Economics. 66–84.
  5. Reynolds, A. (2014). The Increasing Progressivity of U.S. Taxes: And the Shrinking Tax Base. 254.
  6. Saez, E. (2010). Do Taxpayers Bunch at Kink Points?” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 180–212.
  7. Stroup, M.D., Hubbard, K. (2013). An Improved Index and Estimation Method for Assessing Tax Progressivity. 22.
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Sample Essay on NAFTA’s Destiny: A New Trump’s Trade Policy

architectureIt all happened in 1994, when an agreement between the USA and Canada was signed to create the biggest free-trade area in the world. 4 years later (in 1998) Mexico has joined the agreement, too. For over 20 years NAFTA has been uniting the economy of the entire continent. However, when President Donald Trump has come into action, the entire project is under a threat. Does it have any future?

For many years D. Trump insisted that this sort of international trade is a kind of contest and our country loses it. As he became the president, he applied his efforts to reverse the way Americans play their trade cards. Trying to change the position of the States on the trade deals is one of the easiest ways. The new mission is to renegotiate NAFTA. But the thing is that the current political situation is already tense between America and Mexico due to the new border wall. And many experts keep asking, ‘What does the president really want?’

One of the biggest current complains about the agreement is that it practically kills employment of Americans. How so? It frees up many companies to splash the prices on goods by shifting the manufacturing task outside the USA. Trump feels a pressing need to tell the NAFTA partners that his country intends to renegotiate the agreement terms and get a much better deal for US workers.

The reality is such that the plans are straightforward only when the press is somewhere around and direct questions are asked. However, the president’s administration doesn’t have exact plans on how things will keep developing. They are still thinking on the demands during NAFTA negotiations. If the USA withdraw from NAFTA, restrict goods and trade with the partners, this will result in great costs to investors, producers, consumers, etc. The negotiating positions of Canada and Mexico have already hardened since the time the US took aim at dairy and softwood lumber supply management.

The most suitable outcome is a modernized treaty split into 2 parts:

  1. a bilateral US-Mexico trade deal
  2. a bilateral US-Canada trade deal

This option will allow the current administration to reverse NAFTA with no need to change the essence of the underlying substance.

NAFTA has always been one of the key points to be changed during the presidential campaign. Trump has called it ‘a bad deal’ more than once. Lately he called it a catastrophic trade deal for the States. But the idea of pulling out of this agreement scares both Democrats and Republicans. The countdown to renegotiations has already started. But the real question is whether they will be more successful for American citizens than the original NAFTA agreement of 1998?

References

  1. NAFTA: Final Text, Summary, Legislative History & Implementation Directory. (1994). 1-3.
  2. Anthony B., Piketty, T., Saez, E. (2011). Top Incomes in the Long Run of History. 3-71.
  3. Blecker, R. A., Esquivel, G. (2013). Trade and the Development Gap. Mexico and the United States: The Politics of Partnership. 83-110.
  4. Bartra, A., Otero, G. (2009). Contesting Neoliberal Globalism and NAFTA in Rural Mexico: From State Corporatism to the Political-Cultural Formation of the Peasantry. 92-113.
  5. Vogel, R. D. (2007). Transient Servitude: The U.S. Guest Worker Program for Exploiting Mexican and Central American Workers. 1–22.
  6. Porter, E. (2016). Nafta May Have Saved Many Autoworkers’ Jobs. The New York Times.
  7. Murray, R. (2016). The NAFTA Myth. 1-2.
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Sample Essay on How Economics Is Influenced by Other Sciences

algo tradingThere are many different fields of social science studies make a marked impact on the rise and fall of individual economies. Economics itself is a social science that studies observable human behavior and its effects on production, distribution, and consumption.

The general field of social science relies on observed and confirmed bodies of knowledge, just as with any physical science. There is a consistent study of causes and effects. All of these components are relevant to economics as well, and often findings from one field of study, such as sociology, might illuminate certain causes behind market trends and values.

One of the fundamental premises in Economics is that there are resources limited by quantity and utility, resulting in different market values based on human behavior and perception (Robbins 1932). Concepts such as scarcity, and the law of supply and demand influence the actions of certain communities. There are also gaps in what certain economic concepts can account for. Economists have pointed to how scarcity does not explain all the macroeconomics behind high unemployment (Blaug 2007), for instance, which another social science may explain. By examining the influence other sciences have on economics, connections between all the social sciences have become apparent.

The study of sociology is a social science that examines societies at large, researching all the aspects of individual societies. Sociologists study social institutions like government, religion, and marriage, all that have a major impact on the economy.

When researching a specific economy, it’s necessary to look at some certain financial factors that are related with the data regarding marriages and government policies influenced by constituencies and demographics. For example, studies in economics and sociology have revealed links between family structures and economic growth (Mathur 2015). The specific family structures prevalent in a certain community can result in quantifiable impacts on how economics is applied. As a result, research findings on sociological influences can result in new economic applications and approaches.

Economics and political science are directly linked as well. Political science is the study of the State and people’s relation to the State, which includes policies affecting how people make and spend money. The healthier a political body, often the better the economic state. A government that creates good policies can create economic growth (Shapiro 2013). In this way, the activity of political science has a direct influence on economics.

There is also a disagreement on the relationship between policy and economics. Political bodies often push for policies that affect the economy, such as pushes for job creation to enact the growth (Fieldhouse, Mishel, Eisenbrey, Bivens 2011). Other groups within government push back against these policies. This, essentially, breaks down to disagreements between the effectiveness of the Keynesian economics and fiscal conservatism.

Psychology studies the human behavior and mind as well as the causes and effects, behind human behavior, that influence the decisions made regarding the economy. There have also been many pieces of research on how psychology influences consumer buying behavior (Mott).There is the psychology behind marketing and appealing to consumer wants, and psychology behind consumer decisions.

There has also been the substantial growth in the field of behavioral economics. This area of study looks at how certain human behaviors influence the market and existing economic concepts such as the law of diminishing marginal utility which directly influence buying decisions. The two fields have grown together over the years. Economics was once built on the idea of humans as rational who maximize their own interests, but more complex issues of human self-interest and rationality exist today.

Important economic factors, such as stock market prices, supply, and demand, rely heavily on consumer perceptions. Human perceptions and decisions are tied strongly to other social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. Striving to understand these other fields of science increases understanding toward economic realities. The patterns of human behavior that influence the economy can be addressed by other social sciences, all of which consequently influence economics.

References:

  • Blaug, Mark (2007). “The Social Sciences: Economics.” The New Encyclopædia Britannica, v. 27, p. 343 [pp. 343–52].
  • Fieldhouse, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Eisenbrey, Ross; Bivens, Josh (2011). “Putting America back to work.” Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/putting_america_back_to_work_policies_for_job_creation_and_stronger_economi/
  • Henriques, Gregg (2015). “Finding the Missing Link Between Economics and Psychology.” Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/theory-knowledge/201506/finding-the-missing-link-between-economics-and-psychology
  • Mathur, Aparna (2015). “Why Marriage is Good Economics.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/aparnamathur/2015/10/30/the-family-foundations-of-economic-growth/#c7ec19b2a9bf
  • Mott, Elizabeth. “Psychological Factors That Influence Consumer Buying Behavior.” Small Business Chronicle. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/psychological-factors-influence-consumer-buying-behavior-80618.html
  • Robbins, Lionel (1932, 1935, 2nd ed.). An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science, London: Macmillan.
  • Shapiro, Gary (2013). “Six Ways to Create Economic Growth.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/garyshapiro/2013/01/23/six-ways-to-create-economic-growth/#3b9a49c57e32
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Sample Essay “The Minimum Wage: What It Is Supposed to Be and What It Actually Is”

customerThe technical definition of a minimum wage is the lowest amount of money that an employee can be paid in exchange for their labor. Although minimum wages are the legal norm across the world, there are a variety of opinions on what they should be that vary across countries. The minimum is linked to standard of living for low-wage workers; proponents of reform believe that poverty and inequality are linked to the state of the minimum wage.

The need for policy concerning wages arose during the Industrial Revolution, when workers, particularly women and young children, were exploited for long hours and low compensation (Nordlund 1997). Days as long as 14 hours and harsh punishments were common, for a wage as low as a penny an hour, in some cases.

During this time period, the first countries to establish minimum wage laws were Australia and New Zealand in the 1890s (Levin-Waldman 2015). In 1909, provisions that allowed the negotiation of fair wages were created in Great Britain when they passed the Trade Boards Act. The United States took much longer to develop similar minimum wage laws. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created a federal minimum wage and overtime pay regulations through the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), amongst other New Deal reforms. Today, wage law is enforced through the Wage and Hour Division (WHD), which is a branch of the Department of Labor.

Laws concerning wage standards were only obtained after decades of labor disputes. Since the creation of these standards, wages have fluctuated and adjusted to the cost of living, though there is much disagreement regarding whether these changes have been satisfactory over time.

Many critics believe that the minimum wage still does not allow for a livable wage. Economists and politicians disagree on minimum wage’s relation to market prices and unemployment rates. Most look to monetary inflation and how it devalues standardized wages over time. There are many existing arguments for adjusting the minimum wage to inflation to restore consumer purchasing power.

But how is minimum wage determined? Different countries have different approaches to this. In the United States, the minimum wage is set by the federal government, and can only be adjusted through Congress. Many European countries, such as Germany and Italy, utilize collective bargaining. Labor unions are responsible for negotiating wages in their respective industries to determine minimum wages (Grimshaw, Bosch, Rubery 2014). In Britain, the minimum wage is consistently adjusted based on the Low Pay Commission’s recommendations (Dickens 2015).

In the United States, the federal minimum wage was raised to $7.25 in 2009. However, certain areas, such as New York State and Washington, D.C., have set laws raising that minimum even higher in order to adjust for economic inflation. According to the Pew Research Center, the federal minimum wage was the highest in 1968, which equaled around $9 per hour (DeSilver 2017). This means that the current federal minimum in the United States has lowered over the years.

In the city of Seattle, city officials looked exclusively at living costs, such as medical and childcare costs. From this regional information, they calculated a recommended living wage of $15.99 per hour (2014). Based on similar longitudinal studies, many groups push actively for a $15 per hour minimum wage.

Many different groups argue for minimum wages that fit the context of their locations. Often, at least in the United States, the government and representatives do not comply with such demands. However, we should say that the current federal minimum wage is insufficient to afford basic necessities in most communities.

Gradually, higher minimum wages have been achieved throughout the country. Meanwhile, those who are skeptical of the benefits can observe the outcomes.

References:

  • (2014). “Reversing the Trend: A Longitudinal Study of Living Wages and Minimum Wage.” Alliance for a Just Society. http://allianceforajustsociety.org/2014/05/reversing-the-trend-a-longitudinal-study-of-living-wages-and-minimum-wage/
  • (2016). “What Should the Minimum Wage Be?” American Institute for Economic Research. https://www.aier.org/blog/what-should-minimum-wage-be
  • DeSilver, Drew (2017). “5 Facts About the Minimum Wage.” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/04/5-facts-about-the-minimum-wage
  • Dickens, Richard (2015). “How Are Minimum Wages Set?” IZA World of Labor.
  • Grimshaw, D., Bosch, G. and Rubery, J. (2014), Minimum Wages and Collective Bargaining: What Types of Pay Bargaining Can Foster Positive Pay Equity Outcomes?. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52: 470–498.
  • Levin-Waldman, Oren M (2015). The Minimum Wage: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
  • Nordlund, Willis J. (1997). The Quest for a Living Wage: The history of the federal minimum wage program. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
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Sample Essay on Old Age and Poverty

old person side viewAging has become a hot-button issue over several last decades. All Western countries face it and its aftermaths. The number of retirees is getting higher, while the number of young people seems to be declining with each year. There are many theories as to why it is happening now when at the beginning of the twentieth century no aging issues were even present. The answer is pretty clear – industrialization.

Industrial advancement in twentieth century fostered vast inner immigration. There was plenty of jobs available, new technologies made average life expectancy higher and financial well-being enabled people to have more children. With such a large amount of workers economies of the Western countries became way stronger. New taxation systems filled state budgets with money to make sure retirees have nice pensions. It worked pretty well for some twenty of thirty years. But then after babyboomers retired new generation took their working places. The point is that the new generation did not want to have that many children as babyboomers did. And that is the root of the problem. Industrial, or better to say post-industrial society, where people are supposed to spend their entire lives working somewhere in a city, requires permanent increase in population as the younger generation is to be taxed to get a certain amount of money to pension fund. If there is no constant increase of inhabitants, hence there is no money to support retirees to be. It is exactly what we are facing nowadays. If the average number of children in an average family during sixties and seventies was about three to four, later it dropped to two children and even more commonly to having a single child. In that way the number of future retirees jumped up while the number of young workers declined significantly and the situation is not going to change as modern trends and movements like child-free are very popular among the youth.

Different countries are trying to solve that issue in different ways. In Scandinavia, for instance, they decided to make taxes higher and it seems to be working there as social security sphere gains tons of money each month from taxes (usual amount of taxes in Scandinavian countries varies from fifty to sixty per cent). Among other alternatives appropriate for highly industrialized countries there is increased amount of work. In a nutshell it is just encouraging people to work longer before retiring. It is very controversial option, though. First of all many poor people there tend to work on physically hard jobs, and working some more additional years seems to be absolutely invalid. The more complex problem with extending pre-retiring working time is that the job market is not actually very well adapted for it. Another possible solution is outer immigration. Several European countries like Germany are now experimenting with such an option, by now though it seems to make more new problems than solve existing ones.

All in all we have to admit that the problem with seniors being left with very little money is of dramatic importance. It is not yet clear how it is to be solved, or even if it is possible to solve such a complicated issue at all. The main point is that we bear the responsibility to support and help those people, who spend great part of their lives upbringing us.

References:

  1. Barrientos, Armando. “Old Age, Poverty And Social Investment”. Journal of International Development 14.8 (2002): 1133-1141. Web.
  2. Breyer, Friedrich and Stefan Hupfeld. “Fairness Of Public Pensions And Old-Age Poverty”.SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
  3. Gustavsson, Nora S. and Ann E. Maceachron. “Poverty And Child Placement”. Journal of Poverty 1.2 (1997): 81-93. Web.
  4. Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter. “Old Age And Poverty In Developing Countries: New Policy Challenges”. World Development 28.12 (2000): 2157-2168. Web.
  5. Murphy, J. “The Poverty Of Liberalism: The First Old Age Pensions In Australia”. Thesis Eleven 95.1 (2008): 33-47. Web.
  6. “Report On Poverty Identifies Challenges Prevalent In Old Age”. Nursing Older People 23.1 (2011): 4-4. Web.
  7. Vukovic, Drenka. “Old Age And Poverty”. Zbornik Matice srpske za drustvene nauke 131 (2010): 165-175. Web.
  8. Williamson, James and Timothy M. Smeeding. “Sliding Into Poverty? Cross-National Patterns Of Income Source Change And Income Decay In Old Age”. SSRN Electronic Journal n. pag. Web.
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Sample Essay: Mark Zuckerberg Working on Free Internet

richest person on earthAccording to the information provided by the famous Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, the mobile web is about to face the exciting future. At Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Zuckerberg was excited to announce that Facebook is getting ready to set up partnership with 3-5 significant wireless carriers to provide essential and absolutely free phone access to every individual all over the globe – with the direct emphasis on the developing nations.

At the present moment, only about one billion people around the world have mobile phones. At the same time, up to 80% of the rest of earth’s population lives within the places that have either 2G or 3G mobile web access, the Facebook CEO informs.

The problem lies in the fact that those individuals, who haven’t accessed the internet at all, haven’t the slightest idea of how useful it may actually be! Besides, they can’t afford the thousands of American dollars that it costs in the country (and the Europe as well!) to maintain a telephone together with the most suitable data plan. However, they have got two or three bucks needed to pay for the Facebook and messages basic access.

With an assortment of wireless carriers, Facebook is planning to invest in the basic phone access for every human being. The plans are an essential part of Mark’s clear vision for Internet.org, a straight initiative to provide a direct internet access to all people on the earth. The main aim is to provide every person with the basic data services, such as Facebook, weather information access, as well as search – everything free of charge!

In the countries, such as Paraguay or Philippines, Facebook has already successfully assured a partnership with the mobile carriers to make Facebook completely free for every person with the telephone in a pocket. The next step of the grandiose campaign is to expand the Facebook open access to the free basic web services access. The whole idea is about letting everyone know how the internet can quickly help change one’s life!

As for the first free connectivity that will be provided in a little while will be the text data that is quite cheap to deliver. And when users will finally get an idea of the video and streaming usefulness, the carriers will be there to provide quick one-click plans.

To make the long story short, the long-term aim of the campaign is to connect people from all over the globe. And even through the brilliant minds that stand behind the initiative will be losing money for a while at the start, the reason why Zuckerberg started Facebook was exactly the same.

References:

  1. George Beahm. The Boy Billionaire: Mark Zuckerberg In His Own Words (In Their Own Words)Dec 11, 2012.
  2. Noam, E. (2001). The next frontier for openness: Wireless communications. Draft paper presented at 2001. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Alexandria, VA, October.
  3. Mark Zuckerberg and David Duncan. Mark Zuckerberg: Online PersonasApr 24, 2015.
  4. Cyrus Peikari and Seth Fogie. Maximum Wireless Security, by. SAMS. (December 18, 2002).
  5. Carros, D. (2001). Mobile carriers: No single standard in sight. Tech Update ZDNet, November 28.
  6. KATZ M.L. & C. SHAPIRO (1985): Network externalities, competition and compatibility, in American Economic Review, 75: 424–440.
  7. David Alven, Resmi Arjunanpillai, Reza Farhang, Sachin Kansal, Nauman Khan, and Ulrika Leufven, “Hotspots – Connect the dots for a wireless future: Final Report for Ericsson Business Innovation and Telia Research”.
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